• 제목/요약/키워드: Heat pump

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제주도에 설치된 지열 열펌프 시스템용 제주형 지중열교환기의 열특성 연구 (A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Jeju type Ground Heat Exchanger for Ground Source Heat Pump System applied to Jeju Island)

  • 김민준
    • 한국산학기술학회논문지
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    • 제21권2호
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2020
  • 본 연구는 제주도에 설치된 제주형 지중열교환기의 열적 특성을 분석하기 위해서 시험 방법 및 평가 방법을 정립하고, 열응답시험 (TRT)을 통하여 다양한 지역에 설치된 지중열교환기의 지중온도와 열적 특성을 분석하였다. 제주도는 화산암반층으로 이루어져 지하수의 유동이 잘 발달되어 있으며, 제주형 지중열교환기는 보어홀을 굴착 한 이후에 지하수 수위로 부터 30 m 까지 지중열교환기를 설치할 수 있다. 지중열교환기는 여러개의 파이프가 보어홀 내부에 삽입되는 구조로 되어있다. 제주형 지중열교환기의 특성을 살펴보기 위해 제주도 관내 4곳 (표선, 제주, 남원, 한림)에 설치된 지중열교환기에 대한 시험을 수행하였다. 분석결과 제주형 지중열교환기의 경우 열교환기에 열량을 투입 후 1 ~ 3시간 안에서 지중 순환수 온도가 안정화 되었으며, 열교환기가 설치된 지역에 따라서 투입열량에 따른 지중 순환수 온도 상승이 다르게 나타났다. 한림의 경우 지중열교환기 용량이 73.4 kW (냉방) / 82.8 kW (난방)로 가장 높게 나타났으며, 제주의 경우 34.1 kW (냉방) / 23.3 kW (난방)로 가장 작게 계산되었다.

설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2016년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 (Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2016)

  • 이대영;김사량;김현정;김동선;박준석;임병찬
    • 설비공학논문집
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    • 제29권6호
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    • pp.327-340
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    • 2017
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2016. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of flow, heat and mass transfer, the reduction of pollutant exhaust gas, cooling and heating, the renewable energy system and the flow around buildings. CFD schemes were used more for all research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results of the long-term performance variation of the plate-type enthalpy exchange element made of paper, design optimization of an extruded-type cooling structure for reducing the weight of LED street lights, and hot plate welding of thermoplastic elastomer packing. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the heat transfer characteristics of a finned-tube heat exchanger in a PCM (phase change material) thermal energy storage system, influence of flow boiling heat transfer on fouling phenomenon in nanofluids, and PCM at the simultaneous charging and discharging condition were studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, one-dimensional flow network model and porous-media model, and R245fa in a plate-shell heat exchanger were studied. (3) Various studies were published in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, subjects include mobile cold storage heat exchanger, compressor reliability, indirect refrigeration system with $CO_2$ as secondary fluid, heat pump for fuel-cell vehicle, heat recovery from hybrid drier and heat exchangers with two-port and flat tubes. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, subjects include membrane module for dehumidification refrigeration, desiccant-assisted low-temperature drying, regenerative evaporative cooler and ejector-assisted multi-stage evaporation. In the system control category, subjects include multi-refrigeration system control, emergency cooling of data center and variable-speed compressor control. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, fifteenth studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, renewable energies, etc. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which could be help for improving the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the analyses of indoor thermal environments controlled by portable cooler, the effects of outdoor wind pressure in airflow at high-rise buildings, window air tightness related to the filling piece shapes, stack effect in core type's office building and the development of a movable drawer-type light shelf with adjustable depth of the reflector. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy consumption analysis in office building, the prediction of exit air temperature of horizontal geothermal heat exchanger, LS-SVM based modeling of hot water supply load for district heating system, the energy saving effect of ERV system using night purge control method and the effect of strengthened insulation level to the building heating and cooling load.

친환경에너지타운에서 보어홀지중열 저장(BTES) 활용 융복합 열에너지 공급 시스템 사례 연구 (International Case Studies on the Eco-friendly Energy Towns with Hybrid Thermal Energy Supply System and Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES))

  • 심병완
    • 자원환경지질
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    • 제51권1호
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2018
  • 본 연구는 해외 친환경에너지타운에서 보어홀 지중열 저장(BTES) 기술을 활용한 융복합 열에너지 공급 시스템의 3가지 사례로서 캐나다의 ADEU(Alexandra District Energy Utility) 및 DLSC(Drake Landing Solar Community)와 덴마크의 Brædstrup Solpark를 조사하였다. 이들 지역 냉난방 시스템들은 효율과 지속가능성을 높이기 위하여 다중 에너지원을 활용하고 있다. ADEU는 리치몬드시에서 726 개의 지중열교환기로 이루어진 지열필드 및 천연 가스 백업 보일러를 이용한 대규모 지역에너지 공급을 위해 개발되었다. 그리고 캘거리시 인근 Okotoks에 위치한 DLSC는 여름철에 풍부한 태양열 에너지를 144 개의 지중열교환기를 통하여 지중에 저장하고 겨울철 난방을 위해 각 주택에 열에너지를 분배하는 계간축열 방식의 지역난방 시스템이다. Brædstrup Solpark 지역난방 시스템은 태양열, 히트 펌프, 보일러 플랜트 및 계간축열을 위한 48 개의 지중열교환기로 구성되며 다중 에너지원을 이용하여 열을 저장한다. BTES 시추공의 심도와 축열량은 지하수 유동과 지반의 열물성에 따라 영향을 많이 받는다. 이러한 시스템들은 경쟁력 있는 에너지 가격으로 장기적인 에너지를 공급함으로서 신뢰성과 경제성을 평가 받았다. 그리고 ADEU와 Brædstrup Solpark는 서비스 영역 확장을 위한 장기 에너지 공급 계획을 기반으로 확장이 진행중이다. 본 조사를 통하여 이러한 시스템들은 사회 경제적인 이익 뿐만아니라 환경적인 관점이 설계에 반영되어 있는 것을 알 수 있었다. 국내에서도 이러한 프로젝트를 실시하기 위해서는 지방 정부 또는 관련 기관의 에너지 정책 지원 뿐만아니라, 관리 기관 설치를 통한 장기적인 협력이 필요하다.

설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2009년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 (Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2009)

  • 한화택;이대영;김서영;최종민;백용규;권영철
    • 설비공학논문집
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    • 제22권7호
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    • pp.492-507
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    • 2010
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2009. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends of thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of general thermal and fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, and new and renewable energy. Various topics were covered in the field of general thermal and fluid flow such as an expander, a capillary tube, the flow of micro-channel water blocks, the friction and anti-wear characteristics of nano oils with mixtures of refrigerant oils, etc. Research issues mainly focused on the design of micro-pumps and fans, the heat resistance reliability of axial smoke exhaust fans, and hood systems in the field of fluid machinery and piping. Studies on ground water sources were executed concerning two well type geothermal heat pumps and multi-heat pumps in the field of new and renewable energy. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the heat transfer in thermoelectric cooling systems, refrigerants, evaporators, dryers, desiccant rotors. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on high temperature ceramic heat exchangers, plate heat exchangers, frosting on fins of heat exchangers were performed. (3) In the field of refrigeration, papers were presented on alternative refrigerants, system improvements, and the utilization of various energy sources. Refrigeration systems with alternative refrigerants such as hydrocarbons, mixed refrigerants, and $CO_2$ were studied. Efforts to improve the performance of refrigeration systems were made applying various ideas of suction line heat exchangers, subcooling bypass lines and gas injection systems. Studies on heat pump systems using unutilized energy sources such as river water, underground water, and waste heat were also reported. (4) Research trend in the field of mechanical building facilities has been found to be mainly focused on field applications rather than performance improvements. In the area of cogeneration systems, papers on energy and economic analysis, LCC analysis and cost estimating were reported. Studies on ventilation and heat recovery systems introduced the effect on fire and smoke control, and energy reduction. Papers on district cooling and heating systems dealt with design capacity evaluation, application plan and field application. Also, the maintenance and management of building service equipments were presented for HVAC systems. (5) In the field of architectural environment, various studies were carried to improve indoor air quality and to analyze the heat load characteristics of buildings by energy simulation. These studies helped to understand the physics related to building load characteristics and to improve the quality of architectural environment where human beings reside in.

Noncondensable gas's influence in waster vapor absorption accompanying interfacial disturbance into aqueous solution of LiBr

  • Dong-Ho RIE;Keun-Oh Lee
    • 한국안전학회지
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    • 제7권2호
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 1992
  • 흡수식 열펌프에서 폭 넓게 사용되고 있는 대표적인 냉매/흡수용액은 $H_2O$ / LiBr 계이다 그러나, LiBr 수용액의 점성계수는 LiBr의 농도가 커짐에 따라 증가하기 때문에, LiBr수용액의 농용액 영역에서 물질확산계수가 감소한다. 이 결점을 보완하기 위해 흡수용액에 계면활성제를 첨가시키므로서 흡수를 촉진시키는 방식을 이용하고 있다. 계면활성제의 첨가에 의한 흡수용액의 열 및 물질이동 촉진에 관한 연구는 계면활성제 첨가농도에 의해 흡수용액의 표면상에서 게면활성제가 액적으로 존재하는 계면활성제 포화용해도 이상의 조건에서 발생하는 마랑고니대류가 효과적이다. 이 흡수촉진효과는 냉매증기의 흡수시 흡수용액표면상의 분포한 계면활성제와 흡수용액사이의 표면장력차에 기인하는 계면교한 현상에 기인한다. 그러나, 이흡수촉지효과는 냉매증기의 흡수가 일어나는 흡수기 내부의 不안정상태, 즉, 불응축성가스(공기)가 존재하지 않는 조건하에서 이루어지며, 불응축성가스가 흡수촉진저하(열 및 물질이동의 저하)에 기인하는 연구는 보고된 바 없다. 이러한 불응축성가스가 흡수기 내부에 존재할 때 계면교한의 거동 및 열 및 물질이동저하현상을 파악하기 위하여 계면활성제 농도변화(포화용해도 이상 및 이하의 두 조건)에 따른 증기흡수 실험 및 계면교한가시화 실험을 행하였다. 결과적으로 본실험을 통하여 불응축성가스가 수증기흡수에 끼치는 영향을 파악(계면교란의 악화) 첨가시의 흡수량과 不安定상태(불응축성가스가 존재시)의 증기흡수량의 비교에 의해 급격한 증기흡수저하가 不安定상태하에서 발생함으로서 불응축성가스가 흡수촉진효과(계면교한현상)을 저해시키는 결론을 얻었다.es and facts obtained by the expenence in this area, respectively. Both depth-first search and backward chaining schemes are used in reasoning process. This expert system is written in an artificial intelligence language "PROLOG", and its availability is demonstrated through the case study.e함량은 감소되었으며 sulfhydryl기가 증가됨에 따라서 disulfide groups은 감소되는 경향을 보였고 ascorbic acid는 열처리 온도뿐만 아니라 시간과도 관련이 있음을 알 수 있었다. 저온 살균유와 초고온 살균유 사이에서는 지표물질들의 함량이 다소 차이가 있음을 볼 수 있었다.담시간이 구체적으로 기술되지 않았으며, 고유한 언어를 통역하는 과정에서 의미론적 문제에 대한 고려가 부족하였다. 면접과 기록과정에서 보면 자료의 기록과정과 분류 및 분석과정이 명시되어 있지 않았다. 참여관찰과 면접방법을 사용시 이에 대한 자세한 기술이 되어 있지 않았다. 5. 연구결과의 적용 및 이에 대한 논의는 상당히 제한되어 있었는데, 수편의 연구만이 방법론 문제점과 앞으로의 연구분야에 대한 전망을 제시하였으며, 특이한 것은 어 떤 연구자도 이른 개발을 위한 적용 및 임상실무적 차원에서 간호에 대한 제언을 하지 않았다.유모델변수들은 유입-유출 자료들로부터 평가할 수 있으며, 이를 위해서 본 논문에서는 Gauss-Newton 방법을 이용한 Bard

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설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2011년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 (Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2011)

  • 한화택;이대영;김서영;최종민;백용규;김수민
    • 설비공학논문집
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    • 제24권6호
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    • pp.521-537
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    • 2012
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2011. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends of thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of fluid machinery and fluid flow, thermodynamic cycle, and new and renewable energy. Various topics were presented in the field of fluid machinery and fluid flow. Research issues mainly focused on the rankine cycle in the field of thermodynamic cycle. In the new and renewable energy area, researches were presented on geothermal energy, fuel cell, biogas, reformer, solar water heating system, and metane hydration. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, nanofluids and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included heat transfer above liquid helium surface in a cryostat, methane hydrate formation, heat and mass transfer in a liquid desiccant dehumidifier, thermoelectric air-cooling system, heat transfer in multiple slot impinging jet, and heat transfer enhancement by protrusion-in-dimples. In the area of pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, researches on pool boiling of water in low-fin and turbo-B surfaces, pool boiling of R245a, convective boiling two-phase flow in trapezoidal microchannels, condensing of FC-72 on pin-finned surfaces, and natural circulation vertical evaporator were actively performed. In the area of nanofluids, thermal characteristics of heat pipes using water-based MWCNT nanofluids and the thermal conductivity and viscosity were measured. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on fin-tube heat exchangers for waste gas heat recovery and Chevron type plate heat exchanger were implemented. (3) Refrigeration systems with alternative refrigerants such as $CO_2$, hydrocarbons, and mixed refrigerants were studied. Heating performance improvement of heat pump systems were tried applying supplementary components such as a refrigerant heater or a solar collector. The effects of frost growth were studied on the operation characteristic of refrigeration systems and the energy performance of various defrost methods were evaluated. The current situation of the domestic cold storage facilities was analyzed and the future demand was predicted. (4) In building mechanical system fields, a variety of studies were conducted to achieve effective consumption of heat and maximize efficiency of heat in buildings. Various researches were performed to maximize performance of mechanical devices and optimize the operation of HVAC systems. (5) In the fields of architectural environment and energy, diverse purposes of studies were conducted such as indoor environment, building energy, and renewable energy. In particular, renewable energy and building energy-related researches have mainly been studied as reflecting the global interests. In addition, various researches have been performed for reducing cooling load in a building using spot exhaust air, natural ventilation and energy efficiency systems.

지중 열교환기용 멘토나이트 뒤채움재의 화학적, 물리적 영향 요소에 관한 연구 (Chemical and Physical Influence Factors on Performance of Bentonite Grouts for Backfilling Ground Heat Exchanger)

  • 이철호;위지혜;박문서;최항석;손병후
    • 한국지반공학회논문집
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    • 제26권12호
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2010
  • 벤토나이트는 팽윤성이 좋고 투수계수가 낮아 수직 밀폐형 지중 열교환기 시공 시 보어홀(borehole)의 뒤채움재로 널리 사용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 국내에서 사용되는 3가지 벤토나이트를 선정하여 배합비에 따른 점도와 열전도도를 평가하였다. 시공 조건에 따라 다양한 벤토나이트 뒤채움재의 함수비를 고려하여 점도와 열전도도 특성을 규명하기 위해 벤토나이트를 배합비(벤토나이트 무게/(벤토나이트+물) 무게) 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%로 배합하고 시간에 따른 점도와 열전도도를 측정하였다. 그리고 벤토나이트 뒤채움재가 해안지역에서 시공될 경우 지하수의 염도에 의한 영향을 검토하기 위해 배합수의 NaCl 농도가 0.1M, 0.25M, 0.5M일 때 벤토나이트 뒤채움재의 침강 특성을 관찰하였다. 벤토나이트 뒤채움재의 낮은 점도로 인해 천연규사와 같은 첨가재가 지중 열교환기 바닥에 침전될 경우 발생할 수 있는 재료분리 현상을 저점도 벤토나이트 뒤채움재를 사용하여 실험을 통해 규명하였으며 그 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻을 수 있었다. (1) 벤토나이트 뒤채움재의 점도는 시간이 지남에 따라 또는 배합비가 증가함에 따라 상승하는 경향을 나타내며 벤토나이트 뒤채움재의 열전도도는 배합비가 증가하면 상승하지만 통일한 배합비에서는 시간에 따른 변화가 미미하다. (2) 벤토나이트 뒤채움재의 팽창지수가 높을수록 배합수의 NaCl 농도에 따른 침강율은 상대적으로 낮게 나타난다. (3) 저점도 벤토나이트 뒤채움재는 첨가재의 재료분리로 인해 보어홀 내의 깊이별 첨가재 분포를 비균질하게 하므로 보어홀 상부의 열전도도가 하부에 비해 작게 나타날 수 있는 가능성이 있다.

공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2006년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 (Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2006)

  • 한화택;신동신;최창호;이대영;김서영;권용일
    • 설비공학논문집
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    • 제20권6호
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    • pp.427-446
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    • 2008
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2006 has been accomplished. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation and building environments. The conclusions are as follows. (1) The research trends of fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of general fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, etc. New research topics include micro heat exchanger and siphon cooling device using nano-fluid. Traditional CFD and flow visualization methods were still popular and widely used in research and development. Studies about diffusers and compressors were performed in fluid machinery. Characteristics of flow and heat transfer and piping optimization were studied in piping systems. (2) The papers on heat transfer have been categorized into heat transfer characteristics, heat exchangers, heat pipes, and two-phase heat transfer. The topics on heat transfer characteristics in general include thermal transport in a cryo-chamber, a LCD panel, a dryer, and heat generating electronics. Heat exchangers investigated include pin-tube type, plate type, ventilation air-to-air type, and heat transfer enhancing tubes. The research on a reversible loop heat pipe, the influence of NCG charging mass on heat transport capacity, and the chilling start-up characteristics in a heat pipe were reported. In two-phase heat transfer area, the studies on frost growth, ice slurry formation and liquid spray cooling were presented. The studies on the boiling of R-290 and the application of carbon nanotubes to enhance boiling were noticeable in this research area. (3) Many studies on refrigeration and air conditioning systems were presented on the practical issues of the performance and reliability enhancement. The air conditioning system with multi indoor units caught attention in several research works. The issues on the refrigerant charge and the control algorithm were treated. The systems with alternative refrigerants were also studied. Carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and their mixtures were considered and the heat transfer correlations were proposed. (4) Due to high oil prices, energy consumption have been attentioned in mechanical building systems. Research works have been reviewed in this field by grouping into the research on heat and cold sources, air conditioning and cleaning research, ventilation and fire research including tunnel ventilation, and piping system research. The papers involve the promotion of efficient or effective use of energy, which helps to save energy and results in reduced environmental pollution and operating cost. (5) Studies on indoor air quality took a great portion in the field of building environments. Various other subjects such as indoor thermal comfort were also investigated through computer simulation, case study, and field experiment. Studies on energy include not only optimization study and economic analysis of building equipments but also usability of renewable energy in geothermal and solar systems.