• Title, Summary, Keyword: Euclid's Elements of geometry

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Revisiting Logic and Intuition in Teaching Geometry: Comparing Euclid's Elements and Clairaut's Elements (Euclid 원론과 Clairaut 원론의 비교를 통한 기하 교육에서 논리와 직관의 고찰)

  • Chang, Hyewon
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-20
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    • 2021
  • Logic and intuition are considered as the opposite extremes of teaching geometry, and any teaching method of geometry is to be placed between these extremes. The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of logical and intuitive approaches for teaching geometry and to derive didactical implications by taking Euclid's Elements and Clairaut's Elements respectively representing the extremes. To this end, comparing the composition and contents of each book, we analyze which propositions Clairaut chose from Euclid's Elements, how their approaches differ in definitions, proofs, and geometrical constructions, and what unique approaches Clairaut took. The results reveal that Clairaut mainly chose propositions from Euclid's books 1, 3, 6, 11, and 12 to provide the contexts that show why such ideas were needed, rather than the sudden appearance of abstract and formal propositions, and omitted or modified the process of justification according to learners' levels. These propose a variety of intuitive strategies in line with trends of teaching geometry towards emphasis on conceptual understanding and different levels of justification. Specifically, such as the general principle of similarity and the infinite geometric approach shown in Clairaut's Elements, we could confirm that intuition-based geometry does not necessarily aim for tasks with low cognitive demand, but must be taught in a way that learners can understand.

A Comparative Study on Euclid's Elements and Pardies' Elements (Euclid 원론과 Pardies 원론의 비교 연구)

  • Chang, Hyewon
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.33-53
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    • 2020
  • Euclid's Elements has been considered as the stereotype of logical and deductive approach to mathematics in the history of mathematics. Nonetheless, it has been criticized by its dryness and difficulties for learning. It is worthwhile to noticing mathematicians' struggle for providing some alternatives to Euclid's Elements. One of these alternatives was written by a French scientist, Pardies who called it 'Elemens de Geometrie ou par une methode courte & aisee l'on peut apprendre ce qu'il faut scavoir d'Euclide, d'Archimede, d'Apllonius & les plus belles inventions des anciens & des nouveaux Geometres.' A precedent research presented its historical meaning in traditional mathematics of China and Joseon as well as its didactical meaning in mathematics education with the overview of this book. However, it has a limitation that there isn't elaborate comparison between Euclid's and Pardies'in the aspects of contents as well as the approaching method. This evokes the curiosity enough to encourage this research. So, this research aims to compare Pardies' Elements and Euclid's Elements. Which propositions Pardies selected from Euclid's Elements? How were they restructured in Pardies' Elements? Responding these questions, the researcher confirmed his easy method of learning geometry intended by Pardies.

Study on Pardies' 《ELEMENS DE GEOMETRIE》 (Pardies의 《기하 원론》 탐구)

  • Chang, Hyewon
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.291-313
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to analyze Pardies' ${\ll}$Elements of geometry${\gg}$. This book is very interesting from the perspectives of mathematical history as well as of mathematical education. Because it was used for teaching Kangxi emperor geometry in the Qing Dynasty in China instead of Euclid's which was considered as too difficult to study geometry. It is expected that this book suggests historical and educational implications because it appeared in the context of instruction of geometry in the seventeenth century of mathematical history. This study includes the analyses on the contents of Pardies' ${\ll}$Elements of geometry${\gg}$, the author's advice for geometry learning, several geometrical features, and some features from the view of elementary school mathematics, of which the latter two contain the comparisons with other authors' as well as school mathematics. Moreover, some didactical implications were induced based on the results of the study.

Analytic study on construction education based on Euclid's 'On divisions' (유클리드 분할론에 기반한 작도교육의 방향 분석)

  • Suh, Bo Euk
    • East Asian mathematical journal
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.483-500
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    • 2016
  • Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid left three books about mathematics. It's 'The elements', 'The data', 'On divisions of figure'. This study is based on the analysis of Euclid's 'On divisions of figure'. 'On divisions of figure' is a book about the construction of the shape. Because, there are thirty six proposition in 'On divisions of figure', among them 30 proposition are for the construction. In this study, based on the 'On divisions of figure' we explore the direction for construction education. The results were as follows. First, the proposition of 'On divisions of figure' shall include the following information. It is a 'proposition presented', 'heuristic approach to the construction process', 'specifically drawn presenting', 'proof process'. Therefore, the content of textbooks needs a qualitative improvement in this way. Second, a conceptual basis of 'On divisions of figure' is 'The elements'. 'The elements' includes the construction propositions 25%. However, the geometric constructions contents in middle school area is only 3%. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the learning of construction in the our country mathematics curriculum.

A review on the change of content and method of geometry in secondary school with a focus on the proportional relations of geometric figures (초.중등 수학 교과서에서 기하 양 사이의 비례관계의 전개 방식에 대한 역사적 분석)

  • Kwon Seok-Il;Hong Jin-Kon
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.101-114
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    • 2006
  • The content and method of geometry taught in secondary school is rooted in 'Elements' by Euclid. On the other hand, however, there are differences between the content and structure of the current textbook and the 'Elements'. The gaps are resulted from attempts to develop the geometry education. Specially, the content and method for the proportional relations of geometric figures has been varied. In this study, we reviewed the changes of the proportional relations of geometric figures with pedagogical point of view. The conclusion that we came to is that the proportional relations in incommensurable case Is omitted in secondary school. Teacher's understanding about the proportional relations of geometric figures is needed for meaningful geometry education.

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Study on the Teaching of Proofs based on Byrne's Elements of Euclid (Byrne의 'Euclid 원론'에 기초한 증명 지도에 대한 연구)

  • Chang, Hyewon
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.173-192
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    • 2013
  • It may be replacement proofs with understanding and explaining geometrical properties that was a remarkable change in school geometry of 2009 revised national curriculum for mathematics. That comes from the difficulties which students have experienced in learning proofs. This study focuses on one of those difficulties which are caused by the forms of proofs: using letters for designating some sides or angles in writing proofs and understanding some long sentences of proofs. To overcome it, this study aims to investigate the applicability of Byrne's method which uses coloured diagrams instead of letters. For this purpose, the proofs of three geometrical properties were taught to middle school students by Byrne's visual method using the original source, dynamic representations, and the teacher's manual drawing, respectively. Consequently, the applicability of Byrne's method was discussed based on its strengths and its weaknesses by analysing the results of students' worksheets and interviews and their teacher's interview. This analysis shows that Byrne's method may be helpful for students' understanding of given geometrical proofs rather than writing proofs.

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A study on the historico-genetic principle revealed in Clairaut's (Clairaut의 <기하학 원론>에 나타난 역사발생적 원리에 대한 고찰)

  • 장혜원
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.351-364
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    • 2003
  • by A.C. Clairaut is the first geometry textbook based on the historico-genetic principle against the logico-deduction method of Euclid's This paper aims to recognize Clairaut's historico-genetic principle by inquiring into this book and to search for its applications to school mathematics. For this purpose, we induce the following five characteristics that result from his principle and give some suggestions for school geometry in relation to these characteristics respectively : 1. The appearance of geometry is due to the necessity. 2. He approaches to the geometry through solving real-world problems.- the application of mathematics 3. He adopts natural methods for beginners.-the harmony of intuition and logic 4. He makes beginners to grasp the principles. 5. The activity principle is embodied. In addition, we analyze the two useful propositions that may prove these characteristics properly.

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An Analysis and Criticism on the Definition of the Similarity Concept in Mathematical Texts by Investigating Mathematical History (수학사 고찰을 통한 교과서의 닮음 정의에 대한 분석과 비판)

  • Choi, Ji-Sun
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.529-546
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to analyze and criticize the definition of the similarity concept in mathematical texts by investigating mathematical history. At first, we analyzed the definition of Pythagoras, the definition of Euclid's ${\ll}$Elements${\gg}$, the definition of Clairaut's ${\ll}$Elements of geometry${\gg}$, the postulate of Brkhoff's postulates for plane geometry, the definition of Birkhoff & Beatly의 ${\ll}$Basic Geometry${\gg}$. the definition of SMSG ${\ll}$Geometry${\gg}$. and the definition of the similarity concept in current mathematics texts. Then we criticized the definition of the similarity concept in current mathematics texts based on mathematical history. We critically discussed three issues and gave three suggestions.

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Matteo Ricci, Xu Guangqi and the Translation of Euclid's Elements (마테오 리치와 서광계, 그리고 기하원본의 번역)

  • Koh, Youngmee;Ree, Sangwook
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 2020
  • In 1607, Matteo Ricci and Xu Guangqi translated Euclid's 《Elements》 and published 《Jihe yuanben, 幾何原本》. Though 《Elements》 consists of 13 volumes (or 15 volumes according to its editions), they translated only the first 6 volumes on the plane geometry. Why did they do so? This paper discusses about the three questions which naturally arise: What might be the motive of the translation of the 《Elements》? What method did they adopt for the translation? And why did they translate the 6 volumes, especially, the first 6 volumes, not completing the whole?

A Critical Study on the Teaching-Learning Approach of the SMSG Focusing on the Area Concept (넓이 개념의 SMSG 교수-학습 방식에 대한 비판적 고찰)

  • Park, Sun-Yong;Choi, Ji-Sun;Park, Kyo-Sik
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.123-138
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this paper is to reveal the cause of failure of New Math in the field of the SMSG area education from the didactical point of view. At first, we analyzed Euclid's (Elements), De Morgan's (Elements of arithmetic), and Legendre's (Elements of geometry and trigonometry) in order to identify characteristics of the area conception in the SMSG. And by analyzing the controversy between Wittenberg(1963) and Moise(1963), we found that the elementariness and the mental object of the area concept are the key of the success of SMSG's approach. As a result, we conclude that SMSG's approach became separated from the mathematical contents of the similarity concept, the idea of same-area, incommensurability and so on. In this account, we disclosed that New Math gave rise to the lack of elementariness and geometrical mental object, which was the fundamental cause of failure of New Math.

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