• Title/Summary/Keyword: Colloidal suspensions

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Material Dependence of Laser-induced Breakdown of Colloidal Particles in Water

  • Yun, Jong-Il
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2007
  • Laser-induced breakdown of colloidal suspensions, such as polystyrene, $ZrO_2$, and $SiO_2$ particles in diameters of 100-400 nm in water is investigated by nanosecond flash-pumped Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at a wavelength ${\lambda}$= 532 nm. The breakdown threshold intensity is examined in terms of breakdown probability as a function of laser pulse energy. The threshold intensity for $SiO_2$ particles ($1.27{\times}10^{11}\;W/cm^2$) with a size of 100 nm is higher than those for polystyrene and $ZrO_2$ particles with the same size, namely $5.7{\times}10^{10}$ and $5.5{\times}10^{10}\;W/cm^2$, respectively. Results indicate that the absorption of five photons is required to induce ionization of $SiO_2$ particles, whereas the other particles necessitate four-photon absorption. These breakdown thresholds are compared with those measured by nanosecond pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser having a different focusing geometry.

Comparative Analyses of Commercial Detonation Nanodiamonds

  • Puzyr, A.P.;Burova, A.E.;Bondar, V.S.;Rhee, C.K.;Rhee, W.H.;Hwang, K.C.
    • Journal of Powder Materials
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2011
  • Colloidal stability is one of crucial factors for many applications of nanodiamond. Despite recent development, nanodiamonds available on the market often exhibit a high impurity content, wide size distribution of aggregates and low resistance to sedimentation. In the current study, four commercial nanodiamond powders synthesized by detonation synthesis were surface modified and then separated with respect to the size into six fractions by centrifugation. The fractions were evaluated by zeta potential, particle size distribution and elemental composition. The results showed that the modified nanodiamonds form stable colloidal suspensions without sedimentation for a long time.

Back Flushing Behavior of Microfiltration Membrane Fouled by Alumna Colloidal Suspensions (알루미나 현탁액에 의해 오염된 정밀여과막의 역세척 거동)

  • Nam, Suk-Tae;Han, Myeong-Jin
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.34-46
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    • 2009
  • Effect of backflushing on the membrane fouling for polyethylene capillary membranes was examined by measuring the flux of $Al_2O_3$ colloidal suspensions through the cross flow microfiltration. In the comparison of with and without the application of backflushing, the hydraulic resistance to permeate flow of the suspension was less with backfluslng, but the Increasing rate in permeate resistance was higher. Regardless of backflushing, the cake filtration was dominant at the initial period of filtration with backflushing, being followed by the pore blocking. And at steady state, the fouling mechanism is almost governed by the cake filtration model. On the contrary, the pore blocking preceded the cake filtration in the initial stage of the original membrane before backflushing. And irrespective of backflushing, the ratio of cake filtration to total fouling increased, compared with that fur before backflushing. For the membrane with $0.24{\mu}m$ pore size, the permeate resistance was higher than that of $0.34{\mu}m$ pore size membrane. but the ratio of cake filtration was smaller than that of large pore membrane. In comparing the ratio of each fouling component to the total fouling for the case with backflushing pore blocking was 7.8% and cake filtration was 92.2%. for the case without backflushing, total fouling was composed of 9.6% pore blocking and 90.4% cake filtration.

Dispersion stability of ultra-fine $BaTiO_3$ suspensions in aqueous medium

  • Chun, M.P.;Chung, Y.B.;Ma, Y.J.;Cho, J.H.;Kim, B.I.
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 2005
  • The effect of pH and particle size on the dispersion stability of ultra-fine $BaTiO_3$ suspensions in aqueous medium have been investigated by means of zeta potential, sediment experiments, and powder properties (particle analysis, specific surface area) etc. Zeta potential as a function of pH for two particles of different size increases from -75 to +10 mV with decreasing pH from 8.5 to 1.4. The curve of zeta potential for small particle (150 nm) has slow slope than that of large particle (900nm), giving IEP (isoelectric point) value of pH=1.6 for small particle and pH=1.9 for large particle respectively, which means that it is more difficult to control zeta potential with pH fur small particle than large particle. The dispersion stability of $BaTiO_3$ particles in aqueous medium was found to be strongly related with the agglomeration of colloidal suspensions with time through the sedimentation behaviors of colloidal particles with time and pH value.

Synthesis of scheelite-type nanocolloidal particles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid and their size distribution analysis

  • Lee, Jung-Il;Shim, Kwang Bo;Ryu, Jeong Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2014
  • A novel pulsed laser ablation process in liquid was investigated to prepare scheelite-type ceramic [calcium tungstate ($CaWO_4$) and calcium molybdate ($CaMoO_4$)] nanocolloidal particles. The crystalline phase, particle morphology, particle size distribution, absorbance and optical band-gap were investigated. Stable colloidal suspensions consisting of well-dispersed $CaWO_4$ and $CaMoO_4$ nanoparticles with narrow size distribution could be obtained without any surfactant. Particle tracking analysis using optical microscope combined with image analysis was applied for a fast determination of particle size distribution in the prepared nanocolloidal suspensions. The mean nanoparticle size of $CaWO_4$ and $CaMoO_4$ colloidal nanoparticles were 16 nm and 30 nm, with the standard deviations of 2.1 and 5.2 nm, respectively. The optical absorption edges showed blue-shifted values about 60~70 nm than those of reported in bulk crystals. And also, the estimated optical energy band-gaps of $CaWO_4$ and $CaMoO_4$ colloidal particles were 5.2 and 4.7 eV. The observed band-gap widening and blue-shift of the optical absorbance could be ascribed to the quantum confinement effect due to the very small size of the $CaWO_4$ and $CaMoO_4$ nanocolloidal particles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquid.

Variation of the Electrokinetic Potential and Surface Energy Profile of a Binary Mixture Dispersion with Mixing Ratio (이종혼합부유물질의 양에 따른 electrokinetic potential 및 surface energy profile의 변화 양상)

  • Kim, Hee-Jin;Jeong, Hye-Won;Kim, Dong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2012
  • Different colloidal particles generally co-exist in the water and wastewater. Thus, there needs to identify practical electrokinetic characteristics of the particles, comparing with the case when each colloidal material is independently distributed. In this study, changes of overall zeta potential was examined through mixed dispersions of $TiO_{2}$ and $MnO_{2}$. The mixing ratios were classified into 3-type in order to distinguish the effects of the proportions of each particle from those of total concentration in colloidal suspensions. The types are single colloidal dispersions of $TiO_{2}$ and $MnO_{2}$ (1:0, 0:1), mixed dispersions at different ratios (0.75:0.25, 0.5:0.5, 0.25:0.75), and a mixed dispersion with doubled concentration (1:1), respectively. It showed that the overall variation of zeta potential as a function of pH was intensified in a colloidal dispersion with the ratio of 1:1. It was concerned that the double action of ion would contribute to this result. On the one hand, the zeta potentials of each colloidal dispersion commonly decreased at the state of strong acid and base under the influence of compression of the electric double layer. The changing patterns were also considered through calculating total interaction energy between colloidal particles based on DLVO theory and measuring turbidity of the colloidal dispersions.

Mechanical Properties for Methyl Cellulose(MC) Ingredient ER Fluids According to the Numbers of the Electrical Field Cycles (전기장 싸이클 수에 따른 MC성분 ER유체의 기계적성질)

  • 김옥삼;박우철
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.296-301
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    • 2001
  • Electro-Rheological (ER) fluids belong to a class of colloidal suspensions whose global characteristics can be controlled by the imposition of an appropriate external electrical field upon the fluid domain. The ER fluids for smart hydraulic system are a class of colloidal dispersion which exhibit large reversible changes in their rheological behavior when subjected to external electrical fields. This paper presents experimental results on mechanical properties of an ER fluids subjected to electrical fatigues. As a first step, ER fluid is made of methyl cellulose(MC) ingredient choosing 25% of particle weight-concentration. Following the construction of test for mechanical properties of ER fluid, the shear stress, dynamic yield stress and current density of the ER fluids are experimentally distilled as a function of electric field cycles. The mechanical properties test of operated ER fluids are distilled and compared with those of unused ER fluids.

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Flux Decline Behavior in Cross-flow Microfiltration of Inorganic Colloidal Suspensions (무기 콜로이드 현탁액의 십자류 정밀여과에 의한 투과유속의 감소거동)

  • Nam Suk-Tae;Han Myeong-Jin
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.338-348
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    • 2005
  • The permeate flux decline on microfiltration capillary membrane operation was investigated with inorganic colloidal solutions. The permeate flux of the alumina solution is two times higher in average than that of the bentonite solution. The flux decline with increase in operation time was less in the alumina solution than in the bentonite solution. The rate of initial flux decline until 10 min was higher on the bentonite solution over the alumina solution. The decline in permeate flux was due to both the cake formation and the pore blocking. The latter effect was higher in the operation of the bentonite solution. In comparing the ratio of each fouling component to the total fouling fur the $1.0\;kg_f/cm^2$ TMP condition, complete blocking was $9.35\%$, standard blocking was about $6.82\%$ and cake filtration was $83.83\%$, respectively. With the increase in cross flow velocity, the permeate flux increased by $6.0\%$ for the alumina solution and by 14.0 for the bentonite solution. With the increase in average pore size fromm $0.24\;{\mu}m\;to\;0.34\;{\mu}m$, the permeate flux increases 1.61 times for the alumina solution and 1.76 times far the bentonite solution.

Characteristics of Flux Decline in Microfiltration Capillary Membrane of Bentonite Colloidal Suspensions (정밀여과 모세관 막을 이용한 벤토나이트 콜로이드 현탁액의 투과유속 감소특성)

  • Nam Suk-Tae;Han Myeong-Jin
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.52-61
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    • 2005
  • Permeate flux decline in a microfiltration was analyzed by measuring the permeability of bentonite colloidal solution through polyethylene capillary membranes. The flux decline with time was due to the growth of cake layer on the membrane surface and to the pore blocking by particles. As the time approaches to steady state, the permeate flux is almost controlled by the cake filtration model. Faster flux decline at high trans-membrane pressure was attributed to the formation of denser packed cake layer and pore blocking. The ratio of permeate flux to the initial permeate flux, J/J₁, decreased with increasing the trans-membrane pressure, from 45% for 0.5 kg/sub f//㎠ to 38% for 2.0 kg/sub f//㎠. In comparing the ratio of each fouling component to the total fouling for the 0.5 kg/sub f//㎠ TMP condition, complete blocking was 23.4%, standard blocking was about 14.6% and cake filtration was 62.0%, respectively. Permeate flux through the membrane increases with cross flow velocity, and the effect of the variation of velocity is more significant at 1.0 kg/sub f//㎠ rather than at 2.0 kg/sub f//㎠ of the operation pressure. Permeate flux for the membrane having the average pore diameter of 0.34 ㎛ was higher than that for the membrane of 0.24 ㎛ pore size, with the higher flux with the low concentration of feed. On the operation using the membrane of 0.34 ㎛ pore, the pore blocking in the low concentration of 200 ppm is negligible relative to the pore blocking in the 1000 ppm feed.

Tuning the rheological properties of colloidal microgel controlled with degree of cross-links (가교도가 제어된 콜로이드 마이크로겔의 유변학적 물성 분석)

  • Han, Sa Ra;Shin, Sung Gyu;Oh, Seung Joo;Cho, Sung Woo;Jung, Naseul;Kang, Bu Kyeung;Jeong, Jae Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.645-655
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    • 2019
  • In this study, colloidal microgel with viscoelasticity were prepared by using dispersion containing physical crosslinking agents and microgels with various strengths depending on the degree of cross-links.As the chemical crosslinking agent PEGDA400 content increased, hydrogels have various physical properties the swelling ratio decreased from $2.0{\times}10^4%$ to $6.0{\times}10^3%$ and increased viscosity by about 60%. The colloidal microgel was prepared with micro hydrogel grinded to $100{\mu}m$ size and the rheological behavior was confirmed with physical cross linking agent. A colloidal microgel having various viscosities was prepared by controlling starch and alginate based on micro-hydrogel containing 0.75% (w/v) of PEGDA400. In conclusion, these results would be highly useful for applying as a product that can give various physical properties to the colloidal suspensions, cosmetics, paint, and food industry.