• Title, Summary, Keyword: Chosun Mathematics in the 19th century

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Gou Gu Shu in the 19th century Chosun (19세기(世紀) 조선(朝鮮)의 구고술(句股術))

  • Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee;Kim, Chang-Il
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2008
  • As a sequel to the previous paper Gou Gu Shu in the 18th century Chosun, we study the development of Chosun mathematics by investigating that of Gou Gu Shu in the 19th century. We investigate Gou Gu Shu obtained by Hong Gil Ju, Nam Byung Gil, Lee Sang Hyuk and Cho Hee Soon among others and find some characters of the 19th century Gou Gu Shu in Chosun.

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Chinese Mathematics in Chosun (조선(朝鮮)과 중국수학(中國數學))

  • Lee, Chang Koo;Hong, Sung Sa
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2013
  • It is well known that the development of mathematics in eastern Asia was based on Chinese mathematics. Investigating Chinese mathematics books that were brought into Chosun, we study how Chinese mathematics influenced Chosun mathematics. Chinese mathematics books were brought into Chosun in three stages, namely basic mathematics books in the era of King SeJong(1397-1450), Chinese mathematics books influenced by western mathematics in the 17th century and finally those with commentaries on mathematics of Song-Yuan era in the 19th century. We also study the process of their importations.

Lee Sang Seol's mathematics book Su Ri (이상설(李相卨)의 산서 수리(算書 數理))

  • Lee, Sang-Gu;Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2009
  • Since western mathematics and astronomy had been introduced in Chosun dynasty in the 17th century, most of Chosun mathematicians studied Shu li jing yun(數理精蘊) for the western mathematics. In the last two decades of the 19th century, Chosun scholars have studied them which were introduced by Japanese text books and western missionaries. The former dealt mostly with elementary arithmetic and the latter established schools and taught mathematics. Lee Sang Seol(1870~1917) is well known in Korea as a Confucian scholar, government official, educator and foremost Korean independence movement activist in the 20th century. He was very eager to acquire western civilizations and studied them with the minister H. B. Hulbert(1863~1949). He wrote a mathematics book Su Ri(數理, 1898-1899) which has two parts. The first one deals with the linear part(線部) and geometry in Shu li jing yun and the second part with algebra. Using Su Ri, we investigate the process of transmission of western mathematics into Chosun in the century and show that Lee Sang Seol built a firm foundation for the study of algebra in Chosun.

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Chosun Mathematics Book Suan Xue Qi Meng Ju Hae (조선(朝鮮) 산서(算書) 산학계몽주해(算學啓蒙註解))

  • Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2009
  • Zhu Shi Jie's Suan Xue Qi Meng is one of the most important books which gave a great influence to the development of Chosun Mathematics. Investigating San Hak Gye Mong Ju Hae(算學啓蒙註解) published in the middle of the 19th century, we study the development of Chosun Mathematics in the century. The author studied western mathematics together with theory of equations in Gu Il Jib (九一集) written by Hong Jung Ha(洪正夏) and then wrote the commentary, which built up a foundation on the development of Algebra of Chosun in the century.

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Educational policy and curriculums of Korean school mathematics in the late 19th and early 20th century (식민지 수학교육 정책과 19세기 말과 20세기 전반 한국수학 교육과정 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Gu;Noh, Ji-Hwa;Song, Sung-Yell
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.1093-1130
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to examine obstacles to progress for 20th century Korean mathematics. In 1945, shortly after Korea was liberated from Japan, there were no Korean mathematics Ph.D. holders, less than ten bachelor degree holders, and only one person with a master's degree in mathematics. We investigate the reasons for this. Korea has to overcome such an unforgiving condition and rebuild quality education programs in higher mathematics over the last several decades. These debilitating circumstances in higher mathematics were considerable obstacles in developing a higher level of mathematical research for the mainstream of 20th century world mathematics. We study policy and curriculums of Korean school mathematics in the late 19th and early 20th century, with some educational and socio-political background.

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Mathematics Textbooks in the 19th Century Chosun (19세기(世紀) 조선(朝鮮)의 수학(數學) 교과서(敎科書))

  • Oh, Chae-Whan;Lee, Sang-Gu;Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2010
  • In 1895, a new school system was introduced in Chosun by the ministry of education HakBu(學部). They published three mathematics textbooks for the new system, GanISaChikMunJeJib(簡易四則問題集) and GeunISanSulSeo(近易算術書) in 1895 and SanSulSinSeo(算術新書) in 1900. Investigating these three books, we show that they played the role of textbooks and gave rise to a pathway of western mathematics into Chosun. Further they greatly influenced the textbooks published in the early 20th century Chosun.

Nam Byung Gil and his Theory of Equations (남병길(南秉吉)의 방정식논(方程式論))

  • Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2007
  • In the middle of 19th century, Chosun mathematicians Nam Byung Gil(南秉吉) and Lee Sang Hyuk(李尙爀) studied mathematical structures developed in Song(宋) and Yuan(元) eras on top of their early studies on Jiu zhang suan shu(九章算術) and Shu li jing yun(數理精蘊). Their studies gave rise to a momentum for a prominent development of Chosun mathematics in the century. In this paper, we investigate Nam Byung Gil's JipGoYunDan(輯古演段) and MuIHae(無異解) and then study his theory of equations. Through a collaboration with Lee, Sang Hyuk, he consolidated the eastern and western structure of theory of equations.

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History of Fan Ji and Yi Ji (번적과 익적의 역사)

  • Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee;Chang, Hye-Won
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.39-54
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    • 2005
  • In Chinese Mathematics, Jia Xian(要憲) introduced Zeng cheng kai fang fa(增乘開方法) to get approximations of solutions of Polynomial equations which is a generalization of square roots and cube roots in Jiu zhang suan shu. The synthetic divisions in Zeng cheng kai fang fa give ise to two concepts of Fan il(飜積) and Yi il(益積) which were extensively used in Chosun Dynasty Mathematics. We first study their history in China and Chosun Dynasty and then investigate the historical fact that Chosun mathematicians Nam Byung Gil(南秉吉) and Lee Sang Hyuk(李尙爀) obtained the sufficient conditions for Fan il and Yi il for quadratic equations and proved them in the middle of 19th century.

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MATHEMATICS AND SOCIETY IN KORYO AND CHOSUN (고려.조선시대의 수학과 사회)

  • 정지호
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.91-105
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    • 1985
  • Though the tradition of Korean mathematics since the ancient time up to the "Enlightenment Period" in the late 19th century had been under the influence of the Chinese mathematics, it strove to develop its own independent of Chinese. However, the fact that it couldn't succeed to form the independent Korean mathematics in spite of many chances under the reign of Kings Sejong, Youngjo, and Joungjo was mainly due to the use of Chinese characters by Koreans. Han-gul (Korean characters) invented by King Sejong had not been used widely as it was called and despised Un-mun and Koreans still used Chinese characters as the only "true letters" (Jin-suh). The correlation between characters and culture was such that , if Koreans used Han-gul as their official letters, we may have different picture of Korean mathematics. It is quite interesting to note that the mathematics in the "Enlightenment Period" changed rather smoothly into the Western mathematics at the time when Han-gul was used officially with Chinese characters. In Koryo, the mathematics existed only as a part of the Confucian refinement, not as the object of sincere study. The mathematics in Koryo inherited that of the Unified Shilla without any remarkable development of its own, and the mathematicians were the Inner Officials isolated from the outside world who maintained their positions as specialists amid the turbulence of political changes. They formed a kind of Guild, their posts becoming patrimony. The mathematics in Koryo is significant in that they paved the way for that of Chosun through a few books of mathematics such as "Sanhak-Kyemong, "Yanghwi - Sanpup" and "Sangmyung-Sanpup." King Sejong was quite phenomenal in his policy of promotion of mathematics. King himself was deeply interested in the study, createing an atmosphere in which all the high ranking officials and scholars highly valued mathematics. The sudden development of mathematic culture was mainly due to the personality and capacity of King who took any one with the mathematic talent onto government service regardless of his birth and against the strong opposition of the conservative officials. However, King's view of mathematics never resulted in the true development of mathematics per se and he used it only as an official technique in the tradition way. Korean mathematics in King Sejong's reign was based upon both the natural philosophy in China and the unique geo-political reality of Korean peninsula. The reason why the mathematic culture failed to develop continually against those social background was that the mathematicians were not allowed to play the vital role in that culture, they being only the instrument for the personality or politics of the King. While the learned scholar class sometimes played the important role for the development of the mathematic culture, they often as not became an adamant barrier to it. As the society in Chosun needed the function of mathematics acutely, the mathematicians formed the settled class called Jung-in (Middle-Man). Jung-in was a unique class in Chosun and we can't find its equivalent in China of Japan. These Jung-in mathematician officials lacked tendency to publish their study, since their society was strictly exclusive and their knowledge was very limited. Though they were relatively low class, these mathematicians played very important role in Chosun society. In "Sil-Hak (the Practical Learning) period" which began in the late 16th century, especially in the reigns of King Youngjo and Jungjo, which was called the Renaissance of Chosun, the ambitious policy for the development of science and technology called for the rapid increase of the number of such technocrats as mathematicians inevitably became quite ambitious and proud. They tried to explore deeply into mathematics per se beyond the narrow limit of knowledge required for their office. Thus, in this period the mathematics developed rapidly, undergoing very important changes. The characteristic features of the mathematics in this period were: Jung-in mathematicians' active study an publication, the mathematic studies by the renowned scholars of Sil-Hak, joint works by these two classes, their approach to the Western mathematics and their effort to develop Korean mathematics. Toward the "Enlightenment Period" in the late 19th century, the Western mathematics experienced great difficulty to take its roots in the Peninsula which had been under the strong influence of Confucian ideology and traditional Korean mathematic system. However, with King Kojong's ordinance in 1895, the traditonal Korean mathematics influenced by Chinese disappeared from the history of Korean mathematics, as the school system was changed into the Western style and the Western matehmatics was adopted as the only mathematics to be taught at the schools of various levels. Thus the "Enlightenment Period" is the period in which Korean mathematics sifted from Chinese into European.od" is the period in which Korean mathematics sifted from Chinese into European.pean.

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Mathematics in Chosun Dynasty and Si yuan yu jian (조선(朝鮮) 산학(算學)과 사원옥감(四元玉鑑))

  • Hong, Sung-Sa;Hong, Young-Hee
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2007
  • In the 19th century, Chosun mathematicians studied the most distinguished mathematicians Qin Jiu Shao(泰九韶), Li Ye(李治) Zhu Shi Jie(朱世傑) in Song(宋), Yuan(元) Dynasty and they established a solid theoretical development on the theory of equations. These studies began with their study on Si yuan yu jian xi cao(四元玉鑑細艸) compiled by Luo Shi Lin(羅士琳). Among those Chosun mathematicians, Lee Sang Hyuk(李尙爀, $1810{\sim}?$) and Nam Byung Gil(南秉吉 $1820{\sim}1869$) contributed prominently to the research. Relating to Si yuan yu jian xi cao, Nam Byung Gil and Lee Sang Hyuk compiled OgGamSeChoSangHae(玉監細艸詳解) and SaWonOgGam(四元玉鑑), respectively and then later they wrote SanHakJeongEi(算學正義) and IkSan(翼算), respectively. The latter in particular contains most creative results in Chosun Dynasty mathematics. Using these books, we study the relation between the development of Chosun mathematics and Si yuan yu jian.

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