• Title/Summary/Keyword: Behavioral change

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Functional and morphological changes of the livers by 5-fluorouracil treatment on diethylnitrosamine-treated rat (발암제 (DEN) 투여 rat의 간암 진행상태의 기능학적 및 형태학적 변화와 항암제(5-FU) 처리효과 시험)

  • Kim Cheol-Ho;Cheon Sung-Hwa;Bhak Jong-Sik;Kim Nam-Cheol;Kang Chung-Boo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.347-364
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    • 2006
  • This study is concerned with assessment of diethylnitrosamine (DEN 0.01 %) induced liver cell carcinogenesis by measurement of changes preceding the development of neoplasms. Therefore, it was undertaken to investigate changes of liver-specific enzyme activities in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by ad libitum feeding of DEN. And also. the changes of hepatic morphology in SD rats were detected by haematoxylineosin stain and immunohistochemistry (PCNA). 5- Fluorouracil (5- FU) is one of the most widely used anticancer agents for digestive cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma, and is known to affect the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In the present study, SD rats were given drinking water containing 0.01% diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 8 weeks. Minor behavioral change, brittleness of hair and decreased amount of water and diet intake were observed in rats 4 weeks after DEN administration. The body and liver weights were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in rats 11 weeks after DEN administration. The liver weight ratio to body weight was rather stable and not significantly decreased in the all treatment groups. The liver specific enzyme activities (AST, ALT, ${\gamma}$-GTP) were significantly increased in all treatment groups compared to control group (p < 0.05). Variable size of liver tumor and hepatomegaly were observed in rats treated with DEN after 10 weeks. Numerous vacuoles were seen on the midzonal and or peripheral areas of hepatic lobules. The large and polymorphological hepatocytes with eosinophilic cytoplasm or densely basophilic mitotic nucleoli were seen. Several proliferative small round cells were seen on vacuolated and necrotic areas in peripheral hepatic lobules or portal areas. PCNA-positive cells were seen on the vacuolated portal areas and peripheral areas of hepatic lobules in the areas of small round cells. We examined functional and morphological changes of livers by 5 - FU treatments on DEN -treated rat. The DEN -treated rats compared to 5 - FU -treated rats after DEN treatment for 8 weeks. The serum total protein and triglyceride were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased, and the liver enzyme activities of AST and ALT were significantly(p < 0.05) increased. After 8 weeks, in the non-5-FU -treated group, the size of liver tumor were varied and hepatomegaly were observed, hepatocellular vacuolization, necrosis and steatosis were observed on the midzonal and peripheral areas of hepatic lobules. The large and polymorphological hepatocytes were seen, the interlobular connective tissues were proliferated. PCNA positive cells were seen in the portal areas and peripheral areas of hepatic lobules in the non-5-FU-treated group. In hepatocytes, condensation of nuclear chromatin and vacuolization were observed, shape of the nuclei were irregular, the degraded nuclei and organelles were observed. The livers of rats in the 5 - FU treatment group were seen grossly brilliant, red-brown color, and the vacuolated and degenerated regions, hyperplastic nodules were not nearly observed. In the electron microscope, the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes contained a large number of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, developed organelles surrounding nuclei. The above findings suggest that 5 - FU will be effective as anti -liver tumor drug.

Mobile application-based dietary sugar intake reduction intervention study according to the stages of behavior change in female college students (모바일 어플리케이션 기반 당류 저감화 중재 프로그램의 행동변화단계에 따른 효과 분석 : 일부 여대생 대상 연구)

  • Choi, Yunjung;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.488-500
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study examined the effects of a mobile app-based program to reduce the dietary sugar intake according to the stages of the behavioral change in dietary sugar reduction in female college students. Methods: The program used in this study can monitor the dietary sugar intake after recording the dietary intake and provide education message for the reduction of dietary sugar intake. In an eight-week pre-post intervention study, 68 female college students were instructed to record all the food they consumed daily and received weekly education information. At pre-post intervention, the subjects were asked to answer the questionnaire about sugar-related nutrition knowledge, sugar-intake behavior, and sugar-intake frequency. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and a paired t-test were used for comparative analysis according Precontemplation (PC), Contemplation Preparation (C P), and A M (Action Maintenance) stage. Results: Significant differences were observed in the frequency of snacking, experience of nutrition education, and preference for sweetness according to the stages of behavior change in dietary sugar reduction. After finishing an intervention, the sugar-related nutrition knowledge score was increased significantly in the stages of Precontemplation (PC) and Contemplation Preparation (C P). The score of the sugar intake behavior increased significantly in all stages. The intake frequency of chocolate, muffins or cakes, and drinking yogurt decreased significantly in the PC stage and the intake frequency of biscuits, carbonated beverages, and fruit juice decreased significantly in the C P stage. Subjects in the PC and C P stages had an undesirable propensity in nutrition knowledge, sugar-intake behavior, and sugar-intake frequency compared to the A M stage, but this intervention improved significantly their nutrition knowledge, sugar-intake behavior, and sugar-intake frequency. Conclusion: This program can be an effective educational tool in the stages of PC and C P, and is expected to further increase the usability and sustainability of mobile application if supplemented appropriately to a health platform program.

Development and evaluation of a nutrition education program for housewives to reduce sodium intake: application of the social cognitive theory and a transtheoretical model (주부대상 나트륨 섭취 줄이기 영양교육 프로그램 개발 및 효과 평가: 사회인지론과 행동변화단계모델 적용)

  • Ahn, Sohyun;Kwon, Jong-Sook;Kim, Kyungmin;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.174-187
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    • 2022
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate an education program for housewives to reduce sodium intake based on the social cognitive theory. Methods: Housewives (n = 387) received 2 education sessions focused on food purchase and cooking, and completed a questionnaire on their perceptions of environmental, cognitive, and behavioral factors and the stages of behavioral change to reducing sodium intake both before and after the education program. Results: After the education program, the recognition of social efforts for sodium reduction and sodium labeling and experience with low-sodium products increased. Positive expectancies for the prevention of osteoporosis by the reduction of sodium were enhanced while the main barriers in practicing sodium reduction decreased, especially 'interrupting social relationships when dining with others', 'bad taste', 'preference for soup or stew', and 'limited knowledge and skills to practice'. In addition, cognition and nutrition knowledge related to reducing sodium intake were improved on all scores, but the effect on self-efficacy and dietary behavior was limited to only a few items. The percentage of participants in the pre-action stage (including pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages) for reducing sodium intake decreased from 43.2% before education to 21.5% after education, while that in the action stage increased from 19.6% before education to 43.5% after education (p < 0.001). The education program had the most significant impact on participants who were in the pre-action stage and showed improved scores in all sections. Conclusion: These results suggest that a customized education program for housewives could be an effective tool to reduce sodium intake by improving personal expectancies, cognition, and nutrition knowledge regarding sodium reduction and enabling a greater section of the population to move to the action stage of reducing sodium intake.