Corporate credit rating is a very important factor in the market for corporate debt. Information concerning corporate operations is often disseminated to market participants through the changes in credit ratings that are published by professional rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's (S&P) and Moody's Investor Service. Since these agencies generally require a large fee for the service, and the periodically provided ratings sometimes do not reflect the default risk of the company at the time, it may be advantageous for bond-market participants to be able to classify credit ratings before the agencies actually publish them. As a result, it is very important for companies (especially, financial companies) to develop a proper model of credit rating. From a technical perspective, the credit rating constitutes a typical, multiclass, classification problem because rating agencies generally have ten or more categories of ratings. For example, S&P's ratings range from AAA for the highest-quality bonds to D for the lowest-quality bonds. The professional rating agencies emphasize the importance of analysts' subjective judgments in the determination of credit ratings. However, in practice, a mathematical model that uses the financial variables of companies plays an important role in determining credit ratings, since it is convenient to apply and cost efficient. These financial variables include the ratios that represent a company's leverage status, liquidity status, and profitability status. Several statistical and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been applied as tools for predicting credit ratings. Among them, artificial neural networks are most prevalent in the area of finance because of their broad applicability to many business problems and their preeminent ability to adapt. However, artificial neural networks also have many defects, including the difficulty in determining the values of the control parameters and the number of processing elements in the layer as well as the risk of over-fitting. Of late, because of their robustness and high accuracy, support vector machines (SVMs) have become popular as a solution for problems with generating accurate prediction. An SVM's solution may be globally optimal because SVMs seek to minimize structural risk. On the other hand, artificial neural network models may tend to find locally optimal solutions because they seek to minimize empirical risk. In addition, no parameters need to be tuned in SVMs, barring the upper bound for non-separable cases in linear SVMs. Since SVMs were originally devised for binary classification, however they are not intrinsically geared for multiclass classifications as in credit ratings. Thus, researchers have tried to extend the original SVM to multiclass classification. Hitherto, a variety of techniques to extend standard SVMs to multiclass SVMs (MSVMs) has been proposed in the literature Only a few types of MSVM are, however, tested using prior studies that apply MSVMs to credit ratings studies. In this study, we examined six different techniques of MSVMs: (1) One-Against-One, (2) One-Against-AIL (3) DAGSVM, (4) ECOC, (5) Method of Weston and Watkins, and (6) Method of Crammer and Singer. In addition, we examined the prediction accuracy of some modified version of conventional MSVM techniques. To find the most appropriate technique of MSVMs for corporate bond rating, we applied all the techniques of MSVMs to a real-world case of credit rating in Korea. The best application is in corporate bond rating, which is the most frequently studied area of credit rating for specific debt issues or other financial obligations. For our study the research data were collected from National Information and Credit Evaluation, Inc., a major bond-rating company in Korea. The data set is comprised of the bond-ratings for the year 2002 and various financial variables for 1,295 companies from the manufacturing industry in Korea. We compared the results of these techniques with one another, and with those of traditional methods for credit ratings, such as multiple discriminant analysis (MDA), multinomial logistic regression (MLOGIT), and artificial neural networks (ANNs). As a result, we found that DAGSVM with an ordered list was the best approach for the prediction of bond rating. In addition, we found that the modified version of ECOC approach can yield higher prediction accuracy for the cases showing clear patterns.
The World Wide Web is transitioning from being a mere collection of documents that contain useful information toward providing a collection of services that perform useful tasks. The emerging Web service technology has been envisioned as the next technological wave and is expected to play an important role in this recent transformation of the Web. By providing interoperable interface standards for application-to-application communication, Web services can be combined with component based software development to promote application interaction and integration both within and across enterprises. To make Web services for service-oriented computing operational, it is important that Web service repositories not only be well-structured but also provide efficient tools for developers to find reusable Web service components that meet their needs. As the potential of Web services for service-oriented computing is being widely recognized, the demand for effective Web service discovery mechanisms is concomitantly growing. A number of techniques for Web service discovery have been proposed, but the discovery challenge has not been satisfactorily addressed. Unfortunately, most existing solutions are either too rudimentary to be useful or too domain dependent to be generalizable. In this paper, we propose a Web service organizing framework that combines clustering techniques with string matching and leverages the semantics of the XML-based service specification in WSDL documents. We believe that this is one of the first attempts at applying data mining techniques in the Web service discovery domain. Our proposed approach has several appealing features : (1) It minimizes the requirement of prior knowledge from both service consumers and publishers; (2) It avoids exploiting domain dependent ontologies; and (3) It is able to visualize the semantic relationships among Web services. We have developed a prototype system based on the proposed framework using an unsupervised artificial neural network and empirically evaluated the proposed approach and tool using real Web service descriptions drawn from operational Web service registries. We report on some preliminary results demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed approach.
In order to estimate the hydrocarbon reserves, the porosity of the reservoir must be determined. The porosity of the area without a well is generally calculated by extrapolating the porosity logs measured at wells. However, if not only well logs but also seismic data exist on the same site, the more accurate pseudo porosity log can be obtained through artificial neural network technique by extracting the relations between the seismic data and well logs at the site. In this study, we have developed a module which creates pseudo porosity logs by using the polynomial neural network method. In order to obtain more accurate pseudo porosity logs, we selected the seismic attributes which have high correlation values in the correlation analysis between the seismic attributes and the porosity logs. Through the training procedure between selected seismic attributes and well logs, our module produces the correlation weights which can be used to generate the pseudo porosity log in the well free area. To verify the reliability and the applicability of the developed module, we have applied the module to the field data acquired from F3 Block in the North Sea and compared the results to those from the probabilistic neural network method in a commercial program. We could confirm the reliability of our module because both results showed similar trend. Moreover, since the pseudo porosity logs from polynomial neural network method are closer to the true porosity logs at the wells than those from probabilistic method, we concluded that the polynomial neural network method is effective for the data sets with insufficient wells such as F3 Block in the North Sea.
In this study, after developing an LSTM-based deep learning model for estimating daily runoff in the Soyang River Dam basin, the accuracy of the model for various combinations of model structure and input data was investigated. A model was built based on the database consisting of average daily precipitation, average daily temperature, average daily wind speed (input up to here), and daily average flow rate (output) during the first 12 years (1997.1.1-2008.12.31). The Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency Coefficient (NSE) and RMSE were examined for validation using the flow discharge data of the later 12 years (2009.1.1-2020.12.31). The combination that showed the highest accuracy was the case in which all possible input data (12 years of daily precipitation, weather temperature, wind speed) were used on the LSTM model structure with 64 hidden units. The NSE and RMSE of the verification period were 0.862 and 76.8 m3/s, respectively. When the number of hidden units of LSTM exceeds 500, the performance degradation of the model due to overfitting begins to appear, and when the number of hidden units exceeds 1000, the overfitting problem becomes prominent. A model with very high performance (NSE=0.8~0.84) could be obtained when only 12 years of daily precipitation was used for model training. A model with reasonably high performance (NSE=0.63-0.85) when only one year of input data was used for model training. In particular, an accurate model (NSE=0.85) could be obtained if the one year of training data contains a wide magnitude of flow events such as extreme flow and droughts as well as normal events. If the training data includes both the normal and extreme flow rates, input data that is longer than 5 years did not significantly improve the model performance.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of self-efficacy of SMEs' organization members on job engagement and job performance, and to analyze the difference between gender and marital status by applying SEM-ANN analysis. To accomplish the study purpose, 285 valid samples were collected from 400 SMEs' organization members and analyzed. In this study, self - efficacy consisted of three sub-dimensions: self-confidence, self-regulation efficacy, and task difficulty preference. As a result of the analysis, self - efficacy such as self-confidence, self-regulation efficacy, and task difficulty preference had a positive direct effect on job engagement. In addition, self-efficacy and self-control efficacy have a positive effect on job performance, but the preference of task difficulty has no significant effect. In addition, job engagement has a positive(+) effect on job performance, and has a mediating role in the relationship between self-efficacy and job performance. Also, married males preferred self-regulation efficacy, while females preferred self-regulation and self-control efficacy regardless of marital status. The purpose of this study is to present the framework of self-efficacy-job engagement-job performance of SMEs by measuring the self-efficacy related researches mainly in education and service industries, and is meaningful that companies can help to find the basis of management of organization members by gender and marital status of organization members. In addition, the SEM-ANN analysis process of this study is different in that it explains the nonlinear (nonobservative) relationship that can analyze the influence or the combination of the reference variables in the linear (compensatory) relation using the SEM.
Temperature and relative humidity are important factors in crop cultivation and should be properly controlled for improving crop yield and quality. In order to control the environment accurately, we need to predict how the environment will change in the future. The objective of this study was to predict air temperature and relative humidity at a future time by using a multilayer perceptron (MLP). The data required to train MLP was collected every 10 min from Oct. 1, 2016 to Feb. 28, 2018 in an eight-span greenhouse ($1,032m^2$) cultivating mango (Mangifera indica cv. Irwin). The inputs for the MLP were greenhouse inside and outside environment data, and set-up and operating values of environment control devices. By using these data, the MLP was trained to predict the air temperature and relative humidity at a future time of 10 to 120 min. Considering typical four seasons in Korea, three-day data of the each season were compared as test data. The MLP was optimized with four hidden layers and 128 nodes for air temperature ($R^2=0.988$) and with four hidden layers and 64 nodes for relative humidity ($R^2=0.990$). Due to the characteristics of MLP, the accuracy decreased as the prediction time became longer. However, air temperature and relative humidity were properly predicted regardless of the environmental changes varied from season to season. For specific data such as spray irrigation, however, the numbers of trained data were too small, resulting in poor predictive accuracy. In this study, air temperature and relative humidity were appropriately predicted through optimization of MLP, but were limited to the experimental greenhouse. Therefore, it is necessary to collect more data from greenhouses at various places and modify the structure of neural network for generalization.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to attain the correlation analysis and thereby to deduce the uniaxial compressive strength of rock specimens through the elastic wave velocity and the elastic modulus among the physical characteristics measured from the rock specimens collected during drilling investigations in Seoul and Gyeonggi region. Method: Experiments were conducted in the laboratory with 119 granite specimens in order to derive the correlation between the compressive strength of the rocks and elastic wave velocity and elastic modulus. Results: In the case of granite, the results of the analysis of the interaction between the compressive strength of a rock and the elastic wave velocity and elastic modulus were found to be less reliable in the relation equation as a whole. And it is believed that the estimation of the compressive strength by the elastic wave velocity and elastic modulus is less used because of the composition of non-homogeneous particles of granite. Conclusion: In this study, the analysis of correlation between the compressive strength of a rock and the elastic wave velocity and elastic modulus was performed with simple regression analysis and multiple regression analysis. The coefficient determination ($R^2$) of simple regression analysis was shown between 0.61 and 0.67. Multiple regression analysis was 0.71. Thus, using multiple regression analysis when estimating compressive strength can increase the reliability of the correlation. Also, in the future, a variety of statistical analysis techniques such as recovery analysis, and artificial neural network analysis, and big data analysis can lead to more reliable results when estimating the compressive sterength of a rock based on the elastic wave velocity and elastic modulus.
Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
Recently, as the occurrence frequency of sudden floods due to climate change increased, the flood damage on riverside social infrastructures was extended so that there has been a threat of overflow. Therefore, a rapid prediction of potential flooding in riverside social infrastructure is necessary for administrators. However, most current flood forecasting models including hydraulic model have limitations which are the high accuracy of numerical results but longer simulation time. To alleviate such limitation, data driven models using artificial neural network have been widely used. However, there is a limitation that the existing models can not consider the time-series parameters. In this study the water surface elevation of the Hangang River bridge was predicted using the NARX model considering the time-series parameter. And the results of the ANN and RNN models are compared with the NARX model to determine the suitability of NARX model. Using the 10-year hydrological data from 2009 to 2018, 70% of the hydrological data were used for learning and 15% was used for testing and evaluation respectively. As a result of predicting the water surface elevation after 3 hours from the Hangang River bridge in 2018, the ANN, RNN and NARX models for RMSE were 0.20 m, 0.11 m, and 0.09 m, respectively, and 0.12 m, 0.06 m, and 0.05 m for MAE, and 1.56 m, 0.55 m and 0.10 m for peak errors respectively. By analyzing the error of the prediction results considering the time-series parameters, the NARX model is most suitable for predicting water surface elevation. This is because the NARX model can learn the trend of the time series data and also can derive the accurate prediction value even in the high water surface elevation prediction by using the hyperbolic tangent and Rectified Linear Unit function as an activation function. However, the NARX model has a limit to generate a vanishing gradient as the sequence length becomes longer. In the future, the accuracy of the water surface elevation prediction will be examined by using the LSTM model.
Statistical methods such as moving averages, Kalman filtering, exponential smoothing, regression analysis, and ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) have been used for stock market predictions. However, these statistical methods have not produced superior performances. In recent years, machine learning techniques have been widely used in stock market predictions, including artificial neural network, SVM, and genetic algorithm. In particular, a case-based reasoning method, known as k-nearest neighbor is also widely used for stock price prediction. Case based reasoning retrieves several similar cases from previous cases when a new problem occurs, and combines the class labels of similar cases to create a classification for the new problem. However, case based reasoning has some problems. First, case based reasoning has a tendency to search for a fixed number of neighbors in the observation space and always selects the same number of neighbors rather than the best similar neighbors for the target case. So, case based reasoning may have to take into account more cases even when there are fewer cases applicable depending on the subject. Second, case based reasoning may select neighbors that are far away from the target case. Thus, case based reasoning does not guarantee an optimal pseudo-neighborhood for various target cases, and the predictability can be degraded due to a deviation from the desired similar neighbor. This paper examines how the size of learning data affects stock price predictability through k-nearest neighbor and compares the predictability of k-nearest neighbor with the random walk model according to the size of the learning data and the number of neighbors. In this study, Samsung electronics stock prices were predicted by dividing the learning dataset into two types. For the prediction of next day's closing price, we used four variables: opening value, daily high, daily low, and daily close. In the first experiment, data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2017 were used for the learning process. In the second experiment, data from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 were used for the learning process. The test data is from January 1, 2018 to August 31, 2018 for both experiments. We compared the performance of k-NN with the random walk model using the two learning dataset. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was 1.3497 for the random walk model and 1.3570 for the k-NN for the first experiment when the learning data was small. However, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) for the random walk model was 1.3497 and the k-NN was 1.2928 for the second experiment when the learning data was large. These results show that the prediction power when more learning data are used is higher than when less learning data are used. Also, this paper shows that k-NN generally produces a better predictive power than random walk model for larger learning datasets and does not when the learning dataset is relatively small. Future studies need to consider macroeconomic variables related to stock price forecasting including opening price, low price, high price, and closing price. Also, to produce better results, it is recommended that the k-nearest neighbor needs to find nearest neighbors using the second step filtering method considering fundamental economic variables as well as a sufficient amount of learning data.
There are only a handful number of research conducted on pattern analysis of corporate distress as compared with research for bankruptcy prediction. The few that exists mainly focus on audited firms because financial data collection is easier for these firms. But in reality, corporate financial distress is a far more common and critical phenomenon for non-audited firms which are mainly comprised of small and medium sized firms. The purpose of this paper is to classify non-audited firms under distress according to their financial ratio using data mining; Self-Organizing Map (SOM). SOM is a type of artificial neural network that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a lower dimensional discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map. SOM is different from other artificial neural networks as it applies competitive learning as opposed to error-correction learning such as backpropagation with gradient descent, and in the sense that it uses a neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties of the input space. It is one of the popular and successful clustering algorithm. In this study, we classify types of financial distress firms, specially, non-audited firms. In the empirical test, we collect 10 financial ratios of 100 non-audited firms under distress in 2004 for the previous two years (2002 and 2003). Using these financial ratios and the SOM algorithm, five distinct patterns were distinguished. In pattern 1, financial distress was very serious in almost all financial ratios. 12% of the firms are included in these patterns. In pattern 2, financial distress was weak in almost financial ratios. 14% of the firms are included in pattern 2. In pattern 3, growth ratio was the worst among all patterns. It is speculated that the firms of this pattern may be under distress due to severe competition in their industries. Approximately 30% of the firms fell into this group. In pattern 4, the growth ratio was higher than any other pattern but the cash ratio and profitability ratio were not at the level of the growth ratio. It is concluded that the firms of this pattern were under distress in pursuit of expanding their business. About 25% of the firms were in this pattern. Last, pattern 5 encompassed very solvent firms. Perhaps firms of this pattern were distressed due to a bad short-term strategic decision or due to problems with the enterpriser of the firms. Approximately 18% of the firms were under this pattern. This study has the academic and empirical contribution. In the perspectives of the academic contribution, non-audited companies that tend to be easily bankrupt and have the unstructured or easily manipulated financial data are classified by the data mining technology (Self-Organizing Map) rather than big sized audited firms that have the well prepared and reliable financial data. In the perspectives of the empirical one, even though the financial data of the non-audited firms are conducted to analyze, it is useful for find out the first order symptom of financial distress, which makes us to forecast the prediction of bankruptcy of the firms and to manage the early warning and alert signal. These are the academic and empirical contribution of this study. The limitation of this research is to analyze only 100 corporates due to the difficulty of collecting the financial data of the non-audited firms, which make us to be hard to proceed to the analysis by the category or size difference. Also, non-financial qualitative data is crucial for the analysis of bankruptcy. Thus, the non-financial qualitative factor is taken into account for the next study. This study sheds some light on the non-audited small and medium sized firms' distress prediction in the future.
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