• Title/Summary/Keyword: 워터마크

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Copyright Protection of Multimedia Contents Using Watermark (워터마크를 이용한 멀티미디어 컨텐츠의 저작권 보호)

  • Seok, J.W.;Hong, J.W.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.14 no.6 s.60
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    • pp.64-73
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    • 1999
  • 디지털 워터마크는 디지털 데이터에 삽입된 후 검출되거나 추출될 수 있도록 원신호에 추가된 신호를 의미한다. 디지털 서명(signature)이라고 말하기도 하는 워터마크는 디지털 데이터에 삽입된 일종의 패턴으로써, 디지털 멀티미디어 저작물의 저작권 보호를 위해 최근 들어 활발히 연구되고 있는 분야이다. 본 고에서는 멀티미디어 데이터의 소유권을 보호할 수 있는 워터마킹 기술의 역사와 정의 및 응용범위, 워터마크가 갖추어야 할 조건들, 그리고 문자, 영상 및 오디오 데이터의 워터마킹 기술에 대해 살펴보았다.

The High-Reliable Image Authentication Technique using Histogram Compensation (히스토그램 보정을 이용한 고신뢰성 영상 인증 기법)

  • Kim, Hyo-Chul
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.1088-1094
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    • 2010
  • Image authentication algorithms have to discriminate forged contents in the various critical fields of military, medical services, digital documents. They must ensure perceptual invisibility and fragility against malicious attacks. It is desirable that watermarking algorithms support sufficient insertion capacity and blind feature. And, high reliable algorithms that can eliminate false-positive and false-negative errors are needed in the watermark extraction process. In this paper, we control coefficients of high frequency band in a DCT domain and compensate brightness histogram for high reliability. As a result, we found that the proposed algorithm guarantee various requirements such as perceptual invisibility with high PSNR values, fragility, high reliability and blind feature. In addition, experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can be used steganographic applications by sufficient capacity of watermark.

Estimation-based Watermarking Algorithm with Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes (LDPC를 이용한 예측 기반 워터마킹 알고리듬)

  • Lim, Jae-Hyuck;Won, Chee-Sun
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.76-84
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    • 2007
  • The goal of this paper is to improve the watermarking performance using the following two methods; watermark estimation and low density parity check (LDPC) codes. For a blind watermark decoding, the power of a host image, which is hundreds times greater than the watermark power, is the main noise source. Therefore, a technique that can reduce the effect of the power of the host image to the detector is required. To this end, we need to estimate watermark from the watermarked image. In this paper, the watermark estimation is done by an adaptive estimation method with the generalized Gaussian distribution modeling of sub-band coefficients in the wavelet domain. Since the watermark capacity as well as the error rate can be improved by adopting optimum decoding principles and error correcting codes (ECC), we employ the LDPC codes for the decoding of the estimated watermark. Also, in LDPC codes, the knowledge about the noise power can improve the error correction capability. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed algorithm comparing to LDPC decoding with other estimation-based watermarking algorithms.

Threshold Selection Method for Capacity Optimization of the Digital Watermark Insertion (디지털 워터마크의 삽입용량 최적화를 위한 임계값 선택방법)

  • Lee, Kang-Seung;Park, Ki-Bum
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2009
  • In this paper a watermarking algorithm is proposed to optimize the capacity of the digital watermark insertion in an experimental threshold using the characteristics of human visual system(HVS), adaptive scale factors, and weight functions based on discrete wavelet transform. After the original image is decomposed by a 3-level discrete wavelet transform, the watermarks for capacity optimization are inserted into all subbands except the baseband, by applying the important coefficients from the experimental threshold in the wavelet region. The adaptive scale factors and weight functions based on HVS are considered for the capacity optimization of the digital watermark insertion in order to enhance the robustness and invisibility. The watermarks are consisted of gaussian random sequences and detected by correlation. The experimental results showed that this algorithm can preserve a fine image quality against various attacks such as the JPEG lossy compression, noise addition, cropping, blurring, sharpening, linear and non-linear filtering, etc.

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Active Video Watermarking Technique for Infectious Information Hiding System (전염성 정보은닉 시스템을 위한 능동형 비디오 워터마킹 기법)

  • Jang, Bong-Joo;Lee, Suk-Hwan;Kwon, Ki-Ryong
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1017-1030
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    • 2012
  • Most watermarking schemes for video contents protection have been studied to increase watermark's robustness and invisibility against such compressions and many kinds of signal processing after embedding copyright information to the original contents. This paper proposes an active watermarking that infect watermark to contents in the video decoding process using embedded infectious watermark and control signals from a video encoder side. To achieve this algorithm, we design a kernel based watermarking in video encoder side that is possible to recover the original contents and watermark in watermark detection procedure perfectly. And then, by reversible de-watermarking in video decoder side, we design the active watermark infection method using detected watermark and control signal. This means that our system can provide secure re-distributions of video contents without any quality degration and watermark bit error against transcoding or re-encoding processing. By experimental results, we confirmed that the embedded watermark was infected by video contents and codec perfectly without any declines of compression ratio and video quality.

Watermark Extraction Method of Omnidirectional Images Using CNN (CNN을 이용한 전방위 영상의 워터마크 추출 방법)

  • Moon, Won-Jun;Seo, Young-Ho;Kim, Dong-Wook
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.151-156
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    • 2020
  • In this paper, we propose a watermark extraction method of omnidirectional images using CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) to improve the extracted watermark accuracy of the previous deterministic method that based on algorithm. This CNN consists of a restoration process of extracting watermarks by correcting distortion during omnidirectional image generation and/or malicious attacks, and a classification process of classifying which watermarks are extracted watermarks. Experiments with various attacks confirm that the extracted watermarks are more accurate than the previous methods.

An adaptive digital watermark using the spatial masking (공간 마스킹을 이용한 적응적 디지털 워터 마크)

  • 김현태
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.39-52
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    • 1999
  • In this paper we propose a new watermarking technique for copyright protection of images. The proposed technique is based on a spatial masking method with a spatial scale parameter. In general it becomes more robust against various attacks but with some degradations on the image quality as the amplitude of the watermark increases. On the other hand it becomes perceptually more invisible but more vulnerable to various attacks as the amplitude of the watermark decreases. Thus it is quite complex to decide the compromise between the robustness of watermark and its visibility. We note that watermarking using the spread spectrum is not robust enought. That is there may be some areas in the image that are tolerable to strong watermark signals. However large smooth areas may not be strong enough. Thus in order to enhance the invisibility of watermarked image for those areas the spatial masking characteristics of the HVS(Human Visual System) should be exploited. That is for texture regions the magnitude of the watermark can be large whereas for those smooth regions the magnitude of the watermark can be small. As a result the proposed watermarking algorithm is intend to satisfy both the robustness of watermark and the quality of the image. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is robust to image deformations(such as compression adding noise image scaling clipping and collusion attack).

Watermark Extraction Using Motion Estimation of Frames (프레임 움직임 예측을 이용한 워터마크 추출)

  • 이혜주;강현수;홍진우
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • 2001.09a
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    • pp.205-208
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    • 2001
  • 비디오 워터마킹 기술은 비인지성, 안전성 및 강인성의 일반적인 요구조건 이외에 실시간 처리의 요구 조건들이 부가된다. 또한 공격에 있어서 프레임 정보를 이용한 워터마크 제거와 같은 공격이 가능하기 때문에 정지 영상과 비교하여 설계 시 많은 고려가 요구된다. 본 논문에서는 이진의 삽입 정보가 삽입된 비디오 데이터로부터 양극성 랜덤 계열을 이용하여 워터마크를 추출하는 경우에 비디오 프레임 간의 움직임 예측에 의해 구성된 프레임을 이용하여 추출 성능을 향상시키기 위한 추출 방법을 제안하였다. 제안 방식의 실험 결과로부터 움직임 예측을 이용하지 않은 결과와 비교하여 워터마크 추출 성능이 향상되었음을 확인하였다.

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Watermarking using Fast Fourier Transform and Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization (FFT와 그람-슈미트 정규직교화를 이용한 워터마킹)

  • Cha, Sun-Hee;Yoon, Hee-Joo;Cha, Eui-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • 2005.07b
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    • pp.808-810
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    • 2005
  • 분 논문에서는 워터마크가 삽입된 영상의 비가시성과 강인성을 보장하기 위하여 주파수 영역 기반인 FFT(Fast Fourier Transform)을 이용하였다. 그리고 영상에 삽입된 워터마크를 정확하게 추출하기 위하여 워터마크에 삽입하는 키 사이의 직교성을 유지할 수 있는 그람-슈미트 정규직교화를 이용하였다. 실험을 통해 살펴본 결과 영상의 특징에 관계없이 랜덤계열에 민감한 워터마크를 추출할 수 있는 정확성 및 신뢰성을 가짐을 알 수 있었다.

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A Robust Pattern Watermarking Method by Similarity Improvement (유사도 증가를 통한 강인한 패턴 워터마킹 방법)

  • 이경훈;김용훈;이태홍
    • Proceedings of the Korea Multimedia Society Conference
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    • 2003.05b
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    • pp.330-333
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    • 2003
  • 본 논문에서는 웨이브릿 변환 영역에 제안한 알고리듬으로 여러 공격에 강인한 워터마크를 삽입하였다. 추출된 워터마크는 정칙화 영상복원에 활용하는 Tikhonov-Miller 처리를 함으로써 워터마크의 유사성 판별을 쉽게 하였다. 제안한 방법의 강인성과 유사성 향상을 실험하기 위해 명암, 크기 변화, 필터링, 잘라내기, 히스토그램 평활화, 손실압축(JPEG, gif)과 같은 영상처리를 하였다. 실험 결과 제안한 방법은 비가시성을 고려한 강인한 워터마크를 삽입할 수 있고 여러 공격에 대해서 더욱 높은 상관 계수로 추출할 수가 있었다.

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