• Title/Summary/Keyword: 수리생태학

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A Synecological Study of the Riverside Vegetation of the Upper Stream of Nakdong River, Korea1a - I. Forest and Shrub Vegetation - (낙동강 상류의 하천변 식생의 군락생태학적 연구 - I. 삼림 및 관목성 식생 -)

  • Song, Jong-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.443-452
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    • 2008
  • This study conducted a survey on forest and shrub vegetation in the riverside of the main stream of the Nakdong River on the southeastern part of Korea based on the method of ZM school of phytosociology. As a result, this study identified the vegetation units as ten associations and communities belonging to three classes, and four communities unclear to the upper units. The identified vegetation units were as follows: A-1 Acero-Fagetea class group, Fraxino-Ulmetaria, undecided alliance: 1) Fraxinus mandshurica community; Zelkovetalia(prov.), Zelkovion(prov.): 2) Zelkova serrata community, A-2 Salicetea sachalinensis, Salicetalia koreensis, Salicion koreensis: 3) Salicetum koreensio-chaenomeloides, 4) Salicetum koreensis, 5) Hemipteletum davidii, 6) Salicetum gracilistylae, 7) Salicetum graciliglandis, 8) Salicetum subfragilis, A-3 Rosetea multiflorae, Dioscoreo-Puerarietalia lobatae, Actinidio-Vition coignetiae: 9) Stephanandra incisa community, 10) Lycium chinense community, A-4 unclear upper units: 11) Clerodendron trichotomum community, 12) Ailanthus altissima community, 13) Robinia pseudo-acacia community. 14) Amorpha fruticosa community. The community units identified by the study corresponded with the result of cluster analysis quite nicely while the result of PCA analysis in multivariate analyses showed less correspondence with cluster analysis result, but it was interpreted as a degree of aggregation according to anthropogenic influence. The vegetation unit of forests and shrubs, unlike the herbal community in highly common with those of Japan, included five vegetation units unique to Korea at a collective level. On the basis of the above synecological study, this research discussed the relation between each community and environment, and natural environment, etc.

A Study on the Expansion Process of Vegetation on Sand-bars in Fluvial Meandering Stream (충적하천 사행하도에 발달한 사주에서의 식생형성 과정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sam-Hee;Ock, Gi-Young;Choi, Jung-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.658-665
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    • 2008
  • One of the characteristics of fluvial river channel with sand bed-material is the existence of movable sand bars not occupied with vegetation. However, sand bars at the Hahoe's reach of the Nakdong River showing a double-meandering channel has been changed into expanding vegetation area. Moreover, sand material, in recent years, has stopped moving to downstream in channel and the number and area of bare bars which did not occupied by vegetation have been decreased. In order to find out the mechanism, we carried out the channel characteristics surveys such as hydro-geomorphologic, soil physio-chemical and vegetation surveys were conducted twice on autumn season in 2005,2006. The results so far achieved showed that the reduced discharge of transported sediment and duration of dry season might be critical factors for the spread of luxuriant vegetation. The vegetation area was significantly expanded by floods exceeding the subsequent dominant flow discharge. Furthermore, the expansion of vegetation area was highly correlated with the supply of organic matter, nutrients and alteration of soil texture by sediment deposition during the flooding event.

Analysis of Vegetation-Environment Telationships of Main Wild Vegetables on Short-term Income Forest Products, in Korea (단기소득임산물 자생지 주요 산채류 식생과 환경의 상관관계 분석)

  • Kim, Hyoun-Sook;Lee, Sang-Myong;Lee, Joongku
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.447-452
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted in 2016-2017 to provide the basic ecological data needed to establish environmental conditions for the cultivation of wild vegetables. It used TWINSPAN to classify the vegetation structure of natural habitats of wild vegetable nationwide and DCCA ordination to analyze the correlation between the by community structure and environmental factors. We performed TWINSPAN on 100 taxa with high importance values in 91 plots of major habitats of wild vegetables. The vegetation was classified into Cirsium setidens and Synurus deltoides group, Ligularia fischeri and Hemerocallis fulva group, Adenophora divaricata var. manshurica group, Platycodon grandiflorum and Aster scaber group, Aralia elata and Pteridium aquilinum group, and Pimpinella brachycarpa and Osmunda japonica group communities. We then performed DCCA ordination of 11 communities classified by TWINSPAN and 11 environmental factors. The results showed that the altitude had the strongest correlation with the vegetation. The Cirsium setidens, Synurus deltoids, and Lifularia fischeri communities were distributed in areas with similar environmental factors such as high altitude, gentle slope, and nutrient. The Aralia elata and Osmunda japonica communities were distributed in the location environment with low altitude, pH, O.M, T-N, $Ca^{2+}$, and C.E.C. The Hemerocallis fulva community was distributed in the location environment with moderate northeastern and northwestern slope, low altitude and pH, and high $P_2O_5$, whereas the Adenophora divaricata var. manshurica community was distributed in the location environment with gentle southeastern and southwestern slope, high altitude and pH, and low $P_2O_5$, which was the opposite tendency of the location environment from Hemerocallis fulva community. The Platycodon grandiflorum community was distributed in the location environment with gentle southwestern slope, low altitude, pH, O.M, T-N, $P_2O_5$, $Ca^{2+}$, and C.E.C., and high $Mg^{2+}$. The Pteridium aquilinum community was distributed in the location environment with southwestern slope, low altitude, O.M, T-N, C.E.C, $P_2O_5$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $K^+$. The Aster scaber and Pimpinella brachycarpa communities were widely distributed in many plots with various location environments.

Vegetation of Jangdo Island (장도의 식생)

  • Choi, Byoung-Ki;Kim, Jong-Won;Kim, Seong-Yeol;Lim, Jeong-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.512-527
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    • 2012
  • Jangdo Island (area $1.54km^2$) located in the western end of Dadohae Haesang National Park has been recognized as an prominent ecoregion possessing high moor and national biodiversity hotspot. In terms of the Z$\ddot{u}$rich-Montpellier School's phytosociology, we investigate the diversity of plant communities on the island and reevaluate the Jangdo wetland designated as Ramsar site. Ten physiognomic types of the Jangdo's vegetation were classified into 22 syntaxa (3 associations, 15 communities and 4 subcommunities). Jangdo wetland was actually denominated as 'eutrophic wetland' by Pharagmitetea and Orizetea rather than 'high moor'. Nevertheless, existence value of the Jangdo wetland is evaluated very high as a stepping stone for migratory birds and even plant dispersions. A new site of the northernmost distribution of Arachniodo-Castanopsietum sieboldii, which is a kind of cold-resistant phytocoenosis among the Camellietea japonicae of the warm-temperate broad-leaved forests, was described. Hosta yingeri-Carpinus turczaninovii var. coreana community and Carex wahuensis var. robusta-Juniperus chinensis var. procumbens community were described specifically as an endemic and an edaphic vegetation type, respectively. The unique Jangdo's vegetation reflects regional environmental conditions such as much higher frequency of frost-free days and the highest number of annual average foggy days in Korea and a well-developed aquifer in the depressed basin formed by differential erosion. We identified that human interventions (pasture, logging, forest fire, cultivation, etc.) has been involved intensively on every vegetation types, even though a rugged and inaccessible topography of the island. Particularly the Jangdo wetland has been recently threatened by fundamental distortion on hydrological system. We request an immediate establishment of the conservation prescription manual.

Distributions of Endangered Fish Species and Their Relations to Chemical Water Quality-Ecological Stream Health in Geum-River Watershed (금강 대권역 대표 멸종위기 담수어류의 분포 특성 및 이화학적 수질-하천 생태건강도와의 관계분석)

  • Lee, Sang-Jae;An, Kwang Guk
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.986-995
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of endangered fish species and elucidate their relations on chemical water quality, physical habitat conditions and ecological stream health. The dominant species in the watershed was Pseudopungtungia nigra (Pn), Gobiobotia macrocephala (Gm), Gobiobotia brevibarba (Gb), Liobagrus obesus (Lo), and Iksookimia choii (Ic) in the order. The species of Pn designated as "critical endangered species (I) (CER)", was most widely distributed species among the endangered species, so the designation of the species should be re-evaluated. The endangered species was most popular (4 species, 384 individuals) in the Cho-River region of eighteen lotic regions. According to the analysis of chemical tolerance limits in the habitats with endangered fish species, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total phosphorus (TP) was analyzed as "very good" (Ia) and "good condition" in the chemical criteria of the Ministry of Environment, Korea. Also, chemical conditions, based on ammonia-N ($NH_{4+}$), total nitrogen (TN), phosphate-P ($PO_{4^-}P$) were much better in the habitat with endangered species (Hw) than the habitat without endangered species (Ho). In the meantime, the species of Ic showed wide ranges on the chemical tolerance, so physical habitat conditions, such as the size of substrate particles (sand) and hydrological regime, were considered as more important factors than the chemical water quality, if the water quality is not largely degraded. The endangered species were also more distributed in the high-order (4-6) streams than the low-order (1-3) streams. The evaluation of ecological stream health, based on multi-metric model of the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), showed the large difference between the Hw (21.6, fair condition)and Ho (30.5, good condition), indicating that the habitat maintained well chemically and physically had higher distributions of endangered species. Overall, the designation of CER on the Pn should be re-evaluated due to wide-distributions, and the protections from water pollution and the habitat conservations on the endangered species are necessary in the watershed.

Habitat Characteristics of Benthic Macroinvertebrates at a Headwater Stream in the Yeonyeopsan (Mt.) (연엽산 산지계류에 있어서 저서성 대형무척추동물의 서식특성)

  • Jang, Su-Jin;Nam, Sooyoun;Kim, Suk-Woo;Koo, Hyo-Bin;Kim, Ji-Hyeon;Lee, Youn-Tae;Chun, Kun-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.334-344
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    • 2020
  • A total of 24 families, 44 species, and 658 benthic macroinvertebrates were identified, and Ecdyonurus dracon Kluge (13%) was the dominant species in forested streams within the Yeonyeopsan (Mt.). A total of four habit categories (i.e., clingers (56%), burrowers (19%), swimmers (14%), and sprawlers (56%)) were identified, and clingers were the dominant habit at all survey points except point one (UP1). Habitat characteristics were depended on the hydraulic factors (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and substrates), water quality (e.g., DO and water temperature), and the habitat characteristics were differed in the riffle, which has a faster the flow velocity, compared by in the stagnant pool. In other words, in riffles, the clingers dominated in high flow velocity with the large maximum and median grain size for substrates in the habitats regardless of depth, but the burrowers and sprawlers were dominant in low flow velocity with the small maximum and median grain size for substrates in the habitats. Moreover, DO and flow velocity were in positive correlation (y = 0.6666x - 0.659, R2 = 0.0851), and the habitat for burrowers was wider than that for sprawlers or clingers. The water depth was negatively correlated with water temperature (y = -26.397x + 283.87, R2 = 0.1802) since the water temperature is more sensitive to insolation in shallow depth. pH was positively correlated with water temperature. The investigation of the habitat characteristics by separating the relations between pH and DO in upstream and downstream showed the low pH and high DO in the upstream with a high crown density of 68%, regardless of community composition. On the other hand, high pH and low DO in the downstream with a relatively low crown density of 51%. It was considered that the riparian forest played a role in suppressing the growth of attached algae and the controlling water temperature in headwater streams. Our findings identified the habitat characteristics of benthic macroinvertebrates in a headwater stream. We expected that the finding can provide reference data for suggesting conservation and management plans in a headwater stream and increasing academic value.