• Title, Summary, Keyword: 삼원술(三元术)

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Jin-Yuan Mathematics and Quanzhen Taoism (금원수학여전진도(金元数学与全真道))

  • Guo, Shuchun
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.325-333
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    • 2016
  • Chinese Mathematics during the period of Jin (1115-1234) and Yuan (1271-1368) is an integral part of the high achievements of traditional mathematics during the Song (962-1279) and Yuan dynasties, which is another peak in the history of Chinese mathematics, following the footsteps of the high accomplishments during the Warring States period (475-221 BCE), the Western Han (206 BCE-24 ADE), Three Kingdoms (220-280 AD), Jin dynasty (265-420 AD), and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589 AD). During the Jin-Yuan period, Quanzhen Taoism was a dominating branch in Taoism. It offered certain political protection and religious comforts to many during troubled times; it also provided a relatively stable environment for intellectual development. Li Ye (1192-1279), Zhu Shijie (fl. late 13th C to early 14th C) and Zhao Youqin (fl. late 13th C to early 14th C), the major actors and contributors to the Jin-Yuan Mathematics achievements, were either heavily influenced by the philosophy of Quanzhen Taoism, or being its followers. In certain Taoist Classics, Li Ye read the records of the relations of a circle and nine right triangles which has been known as Dongyuan jiurong 洞渊九容 of Quanzhen Taoism. These relations made significant contributions in the study of the circles inscribed in a right triangle, the reasoning of which directly led to the birth of the Method of Celestial Elements (Tianyuan shu 天元术), which further developed into the Method of Two Elements (Eryuan shu ⼆元术), the Method of Three Elements (Sanyuan shu 三元术) and the Method of Four Elements (Siyuan shu 四元术).

A study on the characteristics and growth $Al_xGa_{1-x}Sb$ ($Al_xGa_{1-x}Sb$의 결정성장과 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이재구;박민서;정성훈;송복식;문동찬;김선태
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.226-232
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    • 1997
  • Ternary semiconductor $Al_{x}$G $a_{1-x}$ Sb crystals which have energy gap of 0.7eV-1.6 eV at room temperature according to the composition ratios were grown by the vertical Bridgman method. The characteristics of the crystals were investigated by XRD, HRTEM and Hall effect. The lattice constants of $Al_{x}$G $a_{1-x}$ Sb crystals were varied from 6.096A over .deg. to 6.135A over .deg. with the composition ratio x. The Hall effect of the $Al_{x}$G $a_{1-x}$ Sb crystals were measured by van der Pauw method with the magnetic field of 3 kilogauss at room temperature. The resistivities of Te-doped $Al_{x}$G $a_{1-x}$ Sb crystals were increased from 0.071 to 5 .OMEGA.-cm at room temperature according to the increment of the composition ratio x. The mobilies of $Al_{x}$G $a_{1-x}$ Sb crystals varied with the composition ratio x resulted in the following three different regions of GaSb-like (0.leq.x.leq.0.3), intermediate (0.3.leq.x.leq.0.4) and AlSb-like (0.4.leq.x.leq.l).q.l).q.l).q.l).

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The Influence of Landscape Painting Concepts on Garden Design Principles in East-Asia - Focused on the Relationship between Chinese Painting Theory and Garden Theory - (동양그림의 경관관이 작정원리에 미친 영향 - 중국화론과 원림론의 관계를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Han-Bai
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.85-95
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    • 2010
  • East-Asian intellectual societies in the pre-modem age sustained a holistic system of poem-calligraphy-painting trinity until the coming of Western modernism. Therefore, it has been insisted that the principles of traditional landscape gardening were greatly influenced by those of landscape painting and related literature. This study examined those influences closely to discover the essence of traditional Asian landscape architecture through a comparative study between Chinese landscape painting theory and landscape gardening theory within the dual categories of 'contents(value and meaning)' and 'form(view and spatial structure)'. The most important theme of landscape painting theory in contents category was 'Chi and its Vitality(氣韻生動)'. The matching theme in landscape design field was 'Feng-Shui(風水)' and 'Yi-Jin'g(意境)'. The most important theme of landscape painting theory in formal category was 'the Three Ru1es of Perspective(三遠法)'. And the matching theme of landscape design theory was 'Yindi(因地)' and 'Jie-Jing(借景)'. The most important theme of landscape painting theory in formal category was 'the Three Rules of Perspective(三遠法)'. And the matching theme of landscape design theory was 'Yindi(因地)' and 'Jie-Jing(借景)'. It was found that themes and various principles of both fields were closely inter-related and have much in common in their representation of contents and form. In the close relationship with main art genres like this, the landscape gardening could have been recognized as one of the genres of fine art.

Synthesis of Propylene Glycol via Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol over Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts (혼합 금속산화물 촉매에서 글리세롤의 수소화 분해반응을 통한 프로필렌 글리콜의 합성)

  • Kim, Dong Won;Moon, Myung Joon;Ryu, Young Bok;Lee, Man Sig;Hong, Seong-Soo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2014
  • Hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol was performed over binary and ternary metal oxide catalysts. The conversion of glycerol and selectivity to propylene glycol were increased on Cu/Zn and Cu/Cr mixed oxides compared to pure CuO and ZnO oxides. The addition of alumina into Cu/Zn mixed oxide very highly increased the conversion of glycerol and selectivity to propylene glycol. The conversion of glycerol was increased with increasing the reaction temperature but the selectivity to propylene glycol was shown to have maximum value at $200^{\circ}C$ and then decreased at $250^{\circ}C$. The conversion of glycerol and selectivity to propylene glycol were decreased with increasing the glycerol concentration.