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Image Comparisons using a Diethylenetriaminetriacetic Acid Derivative and Gd-DTPA (Diethylenetriaminetriacetic acid 유도체와 Gd-DTPA와의 영상비교)

  • Cho, Jung-Keun;Lee, Chai-Ho;Han, Tae-Jong;Lim, Cheong-Hwan;Kim, Jung-Nam;Choi, Ji-Won
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.8 no.11
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    • pp.210-216
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    • 2008
  • In this study, image comparisons were carried out using a MRI contrast medium which was derived by mixing a polyaminocarboxylic ligand and a gadolinium (III) transition metal which is paramagnetic and has good neutron absorbing capabilities with Gd-DTPA which is currently being used widely in the clinical setting. By using a 1.0T (Harmony, SIEMENS) MR equipment, phantoms of which 100cc of saline was diluted with a diethylenetriaminetriacetic acid derivative and Gd-DTPA were imaged. The amount of diethylenetriaminetriacetic acid and Gd-DTPA which was diluted into the 100cc of saline was 0.05mmol/L, 0.1mmol/L, 0.15mmol/L, 0.2mmol/L, 0.3mmol/L, 0.5mmol/L, 1.0mmol/L, 2.0mmol/L, 3.0mmol/L and 4.9mmol/L respectively. Head coils were used and while fixing the SE pulse sequence and image variable (as TE is 14ms, 1NEX with a 256x201 matrix), the signal intensity and simple contrast ratios according to changing concentrations and TR were compared with various TR at 300ms, 400ms, 500ms, 600ms, 700ms, 800ms, 900ms, 1000ms, 1200ms, 1400ms and 1600ms. According to the comparison results of the signal intensity of the image based on changes in contrast medium concentrations and TR, the differences in signal intensity between the two contrast mediums were found to be small at $1.0{\sim}2.0mmol/L$ when the highest signal intensity was achieved. However, at concentrations of 1.0mmol/L or less, the signal intensity was markedly higher in the Diethylenetriaminetriacetic acid derivative than in the Gd-DTPA complex. It was also found that the differences in the signal intensities demonstrated by the concentrations of the contrast mediums were affected by the TR. Accordingly, the efficacy of the Diethylenetriaminetriacetic acid derivative was shown to be better than the Gd-DTPA and also possible to get the optimum image quality by the use of an appropriate TR with appropriate concentrations of contrast medium.

Meta-Analysis about Effect of Aromatherapy on Stress (향기요법이 스트레스에 미치는 효과에 대한 메타 분석)

  • Kim, Gyung-Duck;Suh, Soon-Rim
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.188-195
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aromatherapy on stress using meta-analysis. Methods: Meta-analysis was done with 21 published studies, and data were analyzed with the SAS 9.1 program. Results: Fifty eight effect size was estimated with data from 21 published studies. Overall mean effect size (ES), and mean effect size of dependence variables according to the type of intervention and subject and according to the total amount of time spent in aromatherapy were estimated. Overall mean effect size of the effects of aromatherapy was .593, and the subjective stress (.983) was most effective in the physiological faculty, followed by mean effect size of cortisol (.648) and pulse (.40). On the other hand, mean effect size of systolic blood pressure (.490) was moderate, and that of diastolic blood pressure (.401) was not large. Mean effect size of elderly (.706) cancer patients was considerable(.337). There were significant differences depending on the subjects. With regards to the types of aromatherapy, the effect size of aroma massage combined with inhalation therapy was .590, and there were no significant differences between the intervention methods. With regards to the time of intervention, $20{\sim}30$ minutes spent in aromatherapy was .730, and there were no significant differences between the times of intervention. The relationship between the effect size and intervention frequency was r=.349 and showed significant difference. Conclusion: This result suggests that aromatherapy is an effective intervention to reduce stress for subjects. Nursing intervention protocol by using aromatherapy should be developed and applied in clinical and community settings. Further studies on the effects of aromatherapy on stress should be done by using meta-analysis.

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REE(rare earth element) contents for the Korean ginsengs from three different soils (3 토양에서 채취된 고려 인삼의 희토류 원소 함량)

  • Song, Suck-Hwan;Min, Ell-Sik;Chan, Song-Chae
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.357-381
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    • 2008
  • REEs of ginsengs(2, 3, 4 years) from the granite, phyllite and shale areas, Keumsan, are analysed and compared with the their soils. In the weathered soils, high element contents are shown in the LREE of the granite and in the HREE of the phyllite. The granite dominantly show positive correlation relationships. In the field soils, the phyllite are high while the granite are low. Relationships of the contents and correlation relationships can be explained with mineral assemblages and contents within soils, and their solubilities. In the host rocks, high contents are found in the LREE of the granite and HREE of the phyllite. The rocks dominantly show positive relationships. In the ginseng, high contents are shown in the 2 year for the shale and granite, and the 4 year for the phyllite. Element pairs mainly show positive relationships. Comparing of the same ages, the granite are mainly high. In the ratios between the soils and the ginsengs, differences of the several hundred to ten times are found, but dominantly, of the several hundred times in the shale and phyllite, and of the several ten times in the granite. The differences are big in the 3 year, and small in all REE of the 2 year from the shale and granite. while, in the phyllite, big in the LREE of the 2 year and HREE of the 3 year. Based on the absorption of the leachate by the ginsengs within soils, contents and correlation relationships of the ginsengs from the different soils can be explained with mineral assemblages, solubilities of the constitutional minerals and phyio-chemical affects influenced on the solubility. Of the three different soils, the ginsengs of the granites are chemically more similar to their soils.

A rise and fall in AST and ALT level in nonspecific reactive hepatitis (비특이 반응성 간염에서 AST와 ALT 수치 상승과 회복)

  • Kim, Tai Sung;Hur, Tae Hyung;Lim, Sun Jeong;Bin, Joong Hyun;Hahn, Seung Hoon;Kim, So Young;Kim, Hyun Hee;Lee, Wonbae
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.396-400
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : The study was performed to assess the distribution of the diseases associated with nonspecific reactive hepatitis (NRH) for the past 10 years and to evaluate the change in the level of AST and ALT, and the difference by several variable factors. Methods : From January 1997 to December 2006, 646 patients had elevated liver enzymes among 22,763 patients admitted to the Holy Family Hospital. We analyzed the difference in the age distribution, the period of elevated levels of AST and ALT, the resolution period, the peak value, the daily resolution value of AST and ALT, the sexual differences and the difference in several disease entities. One hundred and ninety-seven patients not confirmed as NRH or lost during follow-up were excluded. Results : The prevalence rate of NRH was 2.84%. When compared to AST, ALT showed longer period of morbidity and resolution and the peak value was also higher in ALT. The male and female ratio showed significant value of 1.63:1. The morbid and resolution periods of AST and ALT between males and females were longer periods in males. The most prevalent disease entities were respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Between the respiratory and the gastrointestinal diseases, the highest level of AST and ALT was observed in the respiratory disease. Conclusion : NRH is a common disease that occurs in 2.84% of the admitted pediatric patients. However, the pathogenesis and the progress of the disease have not been well known due to the lack of generalized information. Further research is necessary in the future.

Factors Related to Early Smoking of High School Students in Daegu City and Gyeongsangbuk-do Province (대구, 경북지역 고등학생의 조기흡연과 관련된 요인)

  • Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Kang, Pock-Soo;Hwang, Tae-Yoon;Kim, Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.90-100
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    • 2008
  • =Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking rate and the related factors to early smoking of high school students.Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 920 students in 3 high schools in Daegu Metropolitan Results: Of total respondents, 1.8% had experience of smoking. Of those, 20.2% citied curiosity, 9.0% cited upon recommendation of friends, and 6.2% cited stress management as the main reason for their smoking. Separately, 53.1% responded habitually and 26.5% responded stress management as the main reason for continuing smoking. Of total former smokers, 68.4% said 'worry about their health' as the main reason for quitting smoking. Of those who failed to quit smoking, 58.7% cited 'weakness of will' as the main reason for their failure. Of total respondents, 10.8% were smoking currently. 'Smoking of family member'(p<0.01) and 'intent to smoke'(p<0.05) were significantly associated to early smoking of the subjects.In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 'higher levels of stress' and 'smoking of family member' were significant related factors to early smoking.Conclusions: Amid growing number of early smokers, it is imminent to identify the actual state of discourage smoking. In addition, education programs need to be developed to assist early smokers in quitting smoking and prevent smoking among youth.

The characteristics of neurocardiogenic syncope in children (소아 신경-심인성 실신의 특징)

  • Lee, Kyung Yeon;Lee, Jin Young;Kim, Myoung Hyun;Lee, Jeong Eun;Kim, Yong Dae;Lee, Eun Ju;Lim, Young Su;Kim, Won Seop
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.512-517
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Syncope is relatively common in children and adolescents. Among the etiologies of syncope, neurocardiogenical syncope is the most common, but it is often confounded with seizure. We investigated the clinical features of patients under the age of 15 with neurocardiogenical syncope, compared to patients with neurologic disorders including epilepsy. Methods : Among the children who visited the Department of Pediatrics at Cheongju St. Mary's Hospital and Chungbuk National University Hospital from March 2005 to February 2007, we retrospectively analyzed 69 patients whose chief complaint was syncope. We classified the patients by syncope etiology and made comparisons between the neurocardiogenical syncope (NCS) group and the neurological disorders (ND) group regarding to age; location; time and season in which syncope occurred; associated symptoms, including seizures, provocation factors; prodromes; duration of syncope; frequency of previous syncope; birth history; associated disease; past medical history; family history; neurological exam; physical exam; laboratory findings; electrocardiography; electroencephalography (EEG); head-up tilt test; brain CT; and MRI. Results : Among 69 syncope patients, 53 (76.8%) were in the NCS group and 11 (15.9%) were in the ND group. There were no statistically significant differences between the two study groups except for the presence of prodromes and EEG abnormalities. The presence of prodromes in the NCS group was more common than in the ND group [46.9% (23/49) vs. 9.1% (1/11), (P=0.038)]. The EEG abnormality in the ND group was more common than in the NCS group [90% (9/10) vs. 5.8% (3/52), (P<0.01)]. Conclusion : Our study suggests that detailed history-taking, including that concerning prodromes, is important for the accurate diagnosis of neurocardiogenical syncope, and EEG should be obtained if neurological disorders are suggested.

Coronary artery diameter of normal children aged 3 months to 6 years (생후 3개월에서 7세 미만 정상 소아에서의 관상동맥 직경)

  • Yu, Jeong Jin;Cho, Suk Kyung;Park, Yong-Mean;Lee, Ran;Chung, Sochung;Bae, Sun Hwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.629-633
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study was designed to investigate normal domestic values for the diameter of the left main coronary artery (LCA), the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the right coronary artery (RCA). These data are necessary to define dilatation of coronary arteries in Kawasaki disease cases. Methods : Study subjects were 43 normal healthy children whose ages ranged from 3 months to 6 years. They children visited Konkuk University hospital for echocardiograph examination between March 2005 and November 2007. Measurements of coronary arterial diameters at each branch were done by off-line analyses of recorded images. Simple regression analysis of each the measurements were performed using the body size (body surface area, etc.) as the independent variable. Results : Body surface area was significantly related to the diameters of LCA ($r^2=0.20$, P=0.0038), of LAD ($r^2=0.41$, P<0.0001), and of RCA ($r^2=0.30$, P=0.0002). In the regression model, the estimates of the y-intercept were 1.703, 1.058, and 1.007; the estimates of the regression coefficient were 0.971, 1.175, and 1.177; and the estimates of the standard deviation were 0.315, 0.221, and 0.282 with respect to the three coronary arteries. Conclusion : A the linear regression model of the diameters of three coronary arteries adjusted for body surface area was produced. With these results, the Z-score calculation of the diameter of three coronary arteries, based on normal domestic data, will be possible.

Reticulocyte hemoglobin content for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in young children with acute infection (급성 감염성 질환을 가진 영유아에서 철결핍 진단 지표로서의 망상적혈구혈색소량)

  • Kim, Jon Soo;Choi, Jun Seok;Choi, Doo Young;You, Chur Woo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.8
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    • pp.827-833
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Early identification of iron deficiency in young children is essential to prevent damaging long-term consequences. It is often difficult for the pediatrician to know which indices should be used when diagnosing these conditions especially in hospitalized young children. This study investigated the clinical significances of reticulocyte hemoglobin content in young children with acute infection. Methods : We studied 69 young children aged from 6 to 24 months admitted with acute infection in a single center. Venous blood was drawn to determine hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), hemoglobin content (CH), reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) using ADVIA 120 (Bayer Diagnostics, NY, USA). For evaluating iron status, iron, total iron binding capacity, ferritin and transferrin saturation (Tfsat) were determined. Iron deficiency was defined as Tfsat less than 20%, and iron deficiency anemia as Tfsat less than 20% and Hb level less than 11 g/dL. Results : In all, 47 were iron deficient; 17 of these had iron deficiency anemia. CHr was the only significant predictor of iron deficiency (likelihood ratio test=71.25; odds ratio=0.67; P<0.05). Plasma ferritin level had no predictive value (P=0.519). Subjects with CHr less than 27.4 pg had lower Hb level, MCH, CH, Tfsat, and iron levels than those with CHr 27.4 pg or more (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion : CHr level was a sensitive screening tool and the strongest predictor of iron deficiency in hospitalized infants with acute infection; it was cost saving and avoiding additional sampling. However its reference range should be established.

Analysis on the association between EEG and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-D-glucose (FDG)-PET findings in children with epilepsy (소아 간질 환아에서 뇌파와 PET과의 연관성에 대한 분석)

  • Hur, Yun Jung;Lee, Joon Soo;Lee, Jong Doo;Kim, Heung Dong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.286-292
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : We performed EEG and PET on children with epilepsy concomitantly in order to evaluate the effects of epileptiform and non-epileptiform discharge of EEG on glucose metabolism. Methods : Seventy three children with epilepsy who had PET and EEG simultaneously were included in our study. The subjects were classified in two ways: (1) based on the frequency of epileptiform discharge and (2) the severity of non-epileptiform discharge. We evaluated the clinical aspects of their seizures, the severity of focal slow waves during the interictal period with the frequency of spikes or sharp waves in order to compare with the PET results. Results : The subjects were divided by the frequency of epileptiform discharge, with 13 in the no/rare group, 7 in the occasional group, and 53 children in the frequent group. The concordant rates with PET in each group were 0%, 42.9%, and 67.9%, respectively, showing high correlations with the frequency of epileptiform discharge (P<0.05, r=0.491). The subjects as divided by the severity of non-epileptiform discharge were 15 in the no group, 25 in the infrequent group, 17 in the intermediate group, and 16 in the continuous group. The concurrence rates with PET for each group were 13.3%, 52.0%, 64.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, also showing a high correlation with the severity of non-epileptiform discharge (P<0.05, r= 0.365). Conclusion : Epileptiform discharge and non-epileptiform discharge in EEG showed a certain association with hypometabolism in PET. We recommend EEG to reduce false lateralization and to localize lesions in cases of high frequency and severity.

Regional Differentials in Elderly Suicide Rate: The Focusing on Effects of Family Instability, 1995-2005 (노인자살률의 지역별 편차: 가족불안정의 영향을 중심으로, 1995-2005)

  • Ryu, Jung-Kyun
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.21-44
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    • 2008
  • The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the family instability on the elderly suicide and to examine the change over time. An analytical model of causal structure was set up with residence, family instability and socioeconomic level as explanation variables for this study. The cause of death statistics and micro-data from the vital statistics for 1995, 2000 and 2005 were used. Family instability was measured through divorce, and the rate of elderly(male and female) suicide as well as the suicide rate of the elderly and those in their 20-50's was used for this analysis to examine the effect of divorce. This study hypothesized about family instability and elderly suicide through a literature review. This paper presents maps of the suicide rate by using GIS, and then ANOVA and regression analysis are carried out to verify a difference in the elderly suicide rate affected by residence and divorce. Divorce rate appears in most areas with a high level centering around metropolises except the central inland area. The rate of elderly suicide which stayed in only specific regions with a high level has increased as time went by, and the graph leveled high in most regions except the southwestern coast. In addition, the elderly suicide rate was increased rapidly in rural areas for the most recent 10 years. This shows the seriousness of problems of the aged in rural areas. Through the periods of economic crisis, a sudden increase in divorce causes family instability, which increase the suicide rate increasing. Divorce affects the elderly suicide rate and the 20-50s' suicide rate in the same way, and the stronger effect goes to the elderly rather than those in their 20-50s'. Regarding elderly suicide, the divorce has a different effect by gender, affecting males more than females. With these facts, we can draw the conclusion that family instability has the most significant effect on elderly males' suicide.