• Title/Summary/Keyword: 바코드

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Improvement of SNPs detection efficient by reuse of sequences in Genotyping By Sequencing technology (유전체 서열 재사용을 이용한 Genotyping By Sequencing 기술의 단일 염기 다형성 탐지 효율 개선)

  • Baek, Jeong-Ho;Kim, Do-Wan;Kim, Junah;Lee, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.2491-2499
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    • 2015
  • Recently, the most popular technique to determine the Genotype, genetic features of individual organisms, is the GBS based on SNP from sequences determined by NGS. As analyzing the sequences by the GBS, TASSEL is the most used program to identify the genotypes. But, TASSEL has limitation that it uses only the partial sequences that is obtained by NGS. We tried to improve the efficiency in use of the sequences in order to solve the limitation. So, we constructed new data sets by quality checking, filtering the unused sequences with error rate below 0.1% and clipping the sequences considering the location of barcode and enzyme. As a result, approximately over 17% of the SNP detection efficiency was increased. In this paper, we suggest the method and the applied programs in order to detect more SNPs by using the disused sequences.

Control efficacy of BtPlus against two mosquitoes, Aedes koreicus and Culex vagans (한국숲모기와 줄다리집모기에 대한 비티플러스 방제 효과)

  • Kim, Yonggyun;Minoo, Sajjadian;Ahmed, Shabbir
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.41-54
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    • 2020
  • Two mosquito species were collected in still-water near farming area in Andong, Korea. Based on morphological characters, these two mosquitoes were identified as Aedes koreicus and Culex vagans, respectively. DNA barcode analyses supported the identification. An entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (BtI), exhibited insecticidal activities against the two mosquito species and its virulence was more potent than that of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. It has been known that the bacterial metabolites of Xenorhabdus spp. suppress insect immunity and enhance pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis. This study tested the effect of the bacterial culture broth of Xenorhabdus spp. on enhancing BtI pathogenicity. Among three Xenorhabdus spp., culture broth of X. ehlersii (Xe) was relatively effective to enhance BtI pathogenicity against both mosquito species. Indeed, organic extracts of Xe culture broth suppressed the hemocyte-spreading behavior, suggesting the presence of immunosuppressant in the culture broth. These results suggest a formulation of BtPlus by mixing BtI spore and Xe culture broth to be applied to control the two mosquito species.

Efficient Mutual Authentication Protocol Suitable to Passive RFID System (수동형 RFID 시스템에 적합한 효율적인 상호 인증 프로토콜 설계)

  • Won, Tae-Youn;Chun, Ji-Young;Park, Choon-Sik;Lee, Dong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.18 no.6A
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 2008
  • RFID(Radio Frequency IDentification) system is an automated identification system that basically consists of tags and readers and Back-End-Databases. Tags and Readers communicate with each other by RF signal. As a reader can identify many tags in contactless manner using RF signal, RFID system is expected to do a new technology to replace a bar-code system in supply-chain management and payment system and access control and medical record and so on. However, RFID system creates new threats to the security of systems and privacy of individuals, Because tags and readers communicate with each other in insecure channel using RF signal. So many people are trying to study various manners to solve these problems against attacks, But they are difficult to apply to RFID system based on EPCglobal UHF Class-1 Generation-2 tags. Recently, Chien and Chen proposed a mutual Authentication protocol for RFID conforming to EPCglobal UHF Class-1 Generation-2 tags. we discover vulnerabilities of security and inefficiency about their protocol. Therefore, We analyze vulnerabilities of their protocol and propose an efficient mutual authentication protocol that improves security and efficiency.

Adjustment of 1st order Level Network of Korea in 2006 (2006년 우리나라 1등 수준망 조정)

  • Lee, Chang-Kyung;Suh, Young-Cheol;Jeon, Bu-Nam;Song, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2008
  • The 1st order level network of Korea was adjusted simultaneously in 1987. After that, the 1 st order level network of Korea was adjusted simultaneously by National Geographic Information Institute in 2006. The levelling data were acquired by digital level with invar staff from 2001 through 2006. The 1st order level network consists of 36 level lines. Among them, 34 level lines comprise 11 level loops. Among 36 level lines, 4 level lines have fore & back error larger than the regulations for the 1st order levelling of NGII, Korea. Also, the closing error of 3 loops of level network exceed the regulation for the 1st order levelling of NGII. The standard error of fore and back leveling between bench marks(${\eta}_1$) are distributed between 0.2 $mm/{\surd}km$ and 1.7 $mm/{\surd}km$. The standard error of loop closing(${\eta}_2$) is 2.0 $mm/{\surd}km$. This result means that the 1st order level network of Korea qualifies for the high precision leveling defined by International Geodetic Association in 1948. As the result of the 1st order level network adjustment, the reference standard error($\hat{{\sigma}_0}$) of the level network was 1.8 $mm/{\surd}km$, which is twice as good as that of the 1st adjustment of level networks in 1987.

Establishment of Hanwoo(Korean Cattle, Bos taurus, Linn.) Traceability System Using Radio Frequency Identification(RF-ID) (전자식별칩(RF-ID)을 이용한 한우 생산이력추적시스템 도입)

  • Seo, K. S.;Kim, S.;Lee, J.G.;Sohn, Y.G.;Salces, A.J.;Choi, T.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to develop a traceability system for systematic animal identifi- cation to increase efficiency of animal production, post production and processing to ensure that quality and sanitary meat products reach the consumers of the entire country. The new animal identification traceability system was designed for easy management, data collection and storage considering bar code, registration number and farm number.Specifically the system aimed 1) To provide standard radio frequency technology identification (RF-ID) for livestock management, standard of ear tag, microchip and ear tag identification equipment, 2) To guarantee meat product label thereby safeguarding the consumers 3) To give incentives to farmers for producing quality meat products and 4) To provide unified system for national livestock management.Results of the research which started in July 2003 which was used by several farmers’ cooperatives and Department Store revealed the feasibility of using the RF-ID system although much will be done to conform to global nomenclatures.

The Design and Implementation of Automotive Smart-key System Using general-purpose RFID (교통카드와 같은 범용 RFID를 활용한 자동차용 스마트키 시스템 설계 및 구현)

  • Lee, Yun-Sub;Kim, Kyeong-Seob;Yun, Jeong-Hee;Choi, Sang-Bang
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea CI
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.42-50
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    • 2009
  • Ubiquitous computing technology is widely used in not only our everyday lives but also in education, medical care, military, environment and administration. RFID system, the basis of ubiquitous, is in the spotlight which can be an alternative solution of a bar code recognition system and magnetic system as they basically have practicality and security issues. An electronic authentication named smart-key system is recently concerned by an alternative solution of the security unit for an automobile. RFID system which has a general purpose is also in the limelight by an application technology. In this paper we designed vehicle smart key system with general-propose RFID system that is already in use. First, we designed control unit and RFID card reader for vehicle smart key system. Then we propose an algorithm and prove that the vehicle key system is controllable by showing the result of implementing and testing, after installing. Also security level is enlarged by proposing a authentication protocol between RFID reader and control unit.

Molecular Identification of Zoysia japonica and Zoysia sinica (Zoysia Species) Based on ITS Sequence Analyses and CAPS (ITS 염기서열 분석 및 CAPS를 이용한 조이시아 속(Zoysia) 들잔디와 갯잔디의 구별)

  • Hong, Min-Ji;Yang, Dae-Hwa;Jeong, Ok-Cheol;Kim, Yang-Ji;Park, Mi-Young;Kang, Hong-Gyu;Sun, Hyeon-Jin;Kwon, Yong-Ik;Park, Shin-Young;Yang, Paul;Song, Pill-Soon;Ko, Suk-Min;Lee, Hyo-Yeon
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.344-360
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    • 2017
  • Zoysiagrasses are important turf plants used for school playgrounds, parks, golf courses, and sports fields. The two most popular zoysiagrass species are Zoysia japonica and Zoysia sinica. These are widely distributed across different growing zones and are morphologically distinguishable from each other; however, it is phenotypically difficult to differentiate those that grow along the coastal line from those in beach area habitats. A combination of morphological and molecular approaches is desirable to efficiently identify these two plant cultivars. In this study, we used a rapid identification system based on DNA barcoding of the nrDNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The nrDNA-ITS regions of ITS1, 5.8S nrDNA, and ITS2 from Z. japonica, Z. sinica, Agrostis stolonifera, and Poa pratensis were DNA barcoded to classify these grasses according to their molecular identities. The nrDNA-ITS sequences of these species were found at 686 bp, 687 bp, 683 bp, and 681 bp, respectively. The size of ITS1 ranged from 248 to 249 bp, while ITS2 ranged from 270 to 274 bp. The 5.8S coding region ranged from 163 - 164bp. Between Z. japonica and Z. sinica, nineteen (2.8%) nucleotide sites were variable, and the G+C content of the ITS region ranged from 55.4 to 63.3%. Substitutions and insert/deletion (indel) sites in the nrDNA-ITS sequence of Z. japonica and Z. sinica were converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers, and applied to the Zoysia grasses sampled to verify the presence of these markers. Among the 62 control and collected grass samples, we classified three groups: 36 Z. japonica, 22 Z. sinica, and 4 Z. japonica/Z. sinica hybrids. Morphological classification revealed only two groups; Z. japonica and Z. sinica. Our results suggest that used of the nrDNA-ITS barcode region and CAPS markers can be used to distinguish between Z. japonica and Z. sinica at the species level.

Assaying Mitochondrial COI Sequences and Their Molecular Studies in Hexapoda, PART I: From 2000 to 2009 (육각강에서 보고된 미토콘드리아 COI 염기서열과 이들을 이용한 분자 연구 논문 분석, 파트 I: 2000년~2009년)

  • Lee, Wonhoon;Park, Jongsun;Akimoto, Shin-Ichi;Kim, Sora;Kim, Yang-Su;Lee, Yerim;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Lee, Si Hyeock;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Lee, Seunghwan
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2013
  • Since 2000, a large number of molecular studies have been conducted in Hexapoda with generating large amount of mitochondrial sequences. In this study, to review mitochondrial COI sequences and their molecular studies reported in Hexapoda from 2000 to 2009, 488 molecular studies conducted based on 58,323 COI sequences were categorized according to 26 orders and the positions of COI sequences (5', 3', and entire regions). The numbers of molecular studies in which the three regions utilized varied largely among the 26 orders; however, seven orders showed preferred positions of COI sequences in the researches: Diptera and Orthoptera revealed the largest number of studies in the 5' region; while, Coleoptera, Phthiraptera, Odonata, Phasmatodea, and Psocoptera, showed the largest number of studies in the 3' region. From comparing 84 molecular studies published before 2000, we observed the possibilities that molecular studies in Coleoptera, Diptera, Phthiraptera, and Phasmatodea from 2000 to 2009 had been followed classical studies using the positions of COI sequences well-known until 1999. This study provides useful information to understand the overall trends in COI sequence usages as well as molecular studies conducted from 2000 to 2009 in Hexapoda.

Home Meal Replacement Consumption Status and Product Development Needs according to Dietary Lifestyle of Hong Kong Consumers (홍콩 소비자의 식생활 라이프스타일에 따른 HMR 소비실태와 제품개발 요구도)

  • Paik, Eun-Jin;Lee, Hyun-Jun;Hong, Wan-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.7
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    • pp.876-885
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to identify the characteristics of Home Meal Replacement (HMR) product purchases and the need for HMR product development for Hong Kong consumers in order to suggest market segmentation strategies according to consumers' dietary lifestyle. For this, an online survey was conducted on a panel of 521 Hong Kong consumers with HMR purchase experience registered at a specialized organization. Data analysis was performed using SPSS (ver. 23.0). HMR purchase characteristics of Hong Kong consumers according to dietary lifestyle showed significant differences in all items, including 'number of purchases', 'purchase location', 'cost of single purchase', and 'reason for purchase'. According to dietary lifestyle, participants were divided into three clusters: 'High interest', 'normal interest', and 'low interest'. In the case of 'high interest in dietary life group', 'low-sodium food' was the most common, followed by 'heating food', 'low sugar food', and 'low calorie food'. In the case of 'moderate interest in dietary life group', 'low-sodium food' was the most common, followed by 'low sugar food', 'low calorie food', and 'nutritious meal'. In the case of 'low interest in dietary life group', 'low sugar food' was the most common, followed by 'low-sodium food', 'various new menu', and 'easy-to-carry dehydrated food'. For the 'high interest' group, the highest proportion of consumers were male in between the ages of 20 to 29, married, and worked in an office job. The 'high interest' consumers also showed a tendency to pay '15,000 to 20,000 KRW' per single purchase. The 'normal interest' group consisted of an even proportion of male and female consumers, with the most common age range being from 30 to 39 years, and most were married. These consumers preferred to spend 'less than 10,000 KRW' or '10,000 KRW to 15,000 KRW' per single purchase, which is in the lower price range for HMR purchases. The 'low interest in dietary life group' had more females gender-wise, were unmarried, and worked in an office job, For a single purchase, the 'low interest' group chose to pay less than 10,000 KRW, which is relatively lower than the other two clusters. The results of this study can be used as baseline data for building marketing strategies for HMR product development. It can also provide basic data and directions for new HMR export products that reflect consumer needs in order to create a market segmentation strategy for industrial applications.

Critical Success Factor of Noble Payment System: Multiple Case Studies (새로운 결제서비스의 성공요인: 다중사례연구)

  • Park, Arum;Lee, Kyoung Jun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.59-87
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    • 2014
  • In MIS field, the researches on payment services are focused on adoption factors of payment service using behavior theories such as TRA(Theory of Reasoned Action), TAM(Technology Acceptance Model), and TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). The previous researches presented various adoption factors according to types of payment service, nations, culture and so on even though adoption factors of identical payment service were presented differently by researchers. The payment service industry relatively has strong path dependency to the existing payment methods so that the research results on the identical payment service are different due to payment culture of nation. This paper aims to suggest a successful adoption factor of noble payment service regardless of nation's culture and characteristics of payment and prove it. In previous researches, common adoption factors of payment service are convenience, ease of use, security, convenience, speed etc. But real cases prove the fact that adoption factors that the previous researches present are not always critical to success to penetrate a market. For example, PayByPhone, NFC based parking payment service, successfully has penetrated to early market and grown. In contrast, Google Wallet service failed to be adopted to users despite NFC based payment method which provides convenience, security, ease of use. As shown in upper case, there remains an unexplained aspect. Therefore, the present research question emerged from the question: "What is the more essential and fundamental factor that should takes precedence over factors such as provides convenience, security, ease of use for successful penetration to market". With these cases, this paper analyzes four cases predicted on the following hypothesis and demonstrates it. "To successfully penetrate a market and sustainably grow, new payment service should find non-customer of the existing payment service and provide noble payment method so that they can use payment method". We give plausible explanations for the hypothesis using multiple case studies. Diners club, Danal, PayPal, Square were selected as a typical and successful cases in each category of payment service. The discussion on cases is primarily non-customer analysis that noble payment service targets on to find the most crucial factor in the early market, we does not attempt to consider factors for business growth. We clarified three-tier non-customer of the payment method that new payment service targets on and elaborated how new payment service satisfy them. In case of credit card, this payment service target first tier of non-customer who can't pay for because they don't have any cash temporarily but they have regular income. So credit card provides an opportunity which they can do economic activities by delaying the date of payment. In a result of wireless phone payment's case study, this service targets on second of non-customer who can't use online payment because they concern about security or have to take a complex process and learn how to use online payment method. Therefore, wireless phone payment provides very convenient payment method. Especially, it made group of young pay for a little money without a credit card. Case study result of PayPal, online payment service, shows that it targets on second tier of non-customer who reject to use online payment service because of concern about sensitive information leaks such as passwords and credit card details. Accordingly, PayPal service allows users to pay online without a provision of sensitive information. Final Square case result, Mobile POS -based payment service, also shows that it targets on second tier of non-customer who can't individually transact offline because of cash's shortness. Hence, Square provides dongle which function as POS by putting dongle in earphone terminal. As a result, four cases made non-customer their customer so that they could penetrate early market and had been extended their market share. Consequently, all cases supported the hypothesis and it is highly probable according to 'analytic generation' that case study methodology suggests. We present for judging the quality of research designs the following. Construct validity, internal validity, external validity, reliability are common to all social science methods, these have been summarized in numerous textbooks(Yin, 2014). In case study methodology, these also have served as a framework for assessing a large group of case studies (Gibbert, Ruigrok & Wicki, 2008). Construct validity is to identify correct operational measures for the concepts being studied. To satisfy construct validity, we use multiple sources of evidence such as the academic journals, magazine and articles etc. Internal validity is to seek to establish a causal relationship, whereby certain conditions are believed to lead to other conditions, as distinguished from spurious relationships. To satisfy internal validity, we do explanation building through four cases analysis. External validity is to define the domain to which a study's findings can be generalized. To satisfy this, replication logic in multiple case studies is used. Reliability is to demonstrate that the operations of a study -such as the data collection procedures- can be repeated, with the same results. To satisfy this, we use case study protocol. In Korea, the competition among stakeholders over mobile payment industry is intensifying. Not only main three Telecom Companies but also Smartphone companies and service provider like KakaoTalk announced that they would enter into mobile payment industry. Mobile payment industry is getting competitive. But it doesn't still have momentum effect notwithstanding positive presumptions that will grow very fast. Mobile payment services are categorized into various technology based payment service such as IC mobile card and Application payment service of cloud based, NFC, sound wave, BLE(Bluetooth Low Energy), Biometric recognition technology etc. Especially, mobile payment service is discontinuous innovations that users should change their behavior and noble infrastructure should be installed. These require users to learn how to use it and cause infra-installation cost to shopkeepers. Additionally, payment industry has the strong path dependency. In spite of these obstacles, mobile payment service which should provide dramatically improved value as a products and service of discontinuous innovations is focusing on convenience and security, convenience and so on. We suggest the following to success mobile payment service. First, non-customers of the existing payment service need to be identified. Second, needs of them should be taken. Then, noble payment service provides non-customer who can't pay by the previous payment method to payment method. In conclusion, mobile payment service can create new market and will result in extension of payment market.