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The effects of stepping in place tempo and roundhouse kick types on response time in taekwondo (태권도에서 제자리딛기 템포와 돌려차기 유형이 응답시간에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Hwa;Song, Young-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.870-877
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the effects of stepping-in-place tempo and roundhouse kick types on response time. Fifteen males participated in this experiment. All have over ten years of experience and hold a forth dan(degree) black belt in taekwondo. The task is when the participants are doing stepping in place they respond to the light stimulus as fast as they can do roundhouse kick. Five different stepping in place tempos (100, 120, 140, 160, and 180 bpm) and four different types of roundhouse kick(front leg body roundhouse kick, front leg head roundhouse kick, back leg body roundhouse kick, and back leg head roundhouse kick) were used. Three measurements were taken for each of the different combinations of conditions for a total of 60 measurements. For data analysis, two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used and pair-wise comparisons were performed using bonferroni statistics. The results show that there was significant difference interaction effect between stepping in place tempo and roundhouse kick type in the response time. And, there were significant difference in main effect of response time in accordance with stepping in place tempo and roundhouse kick type. The response time of roundhouse kick was the fastest at 160 bpm of stepping in place tempo, but there was no significant difference between 140 and 160 bpm. Front leg body roundhouse kick was the fastest. And, the response time was the fastest when front leg body roundhouse kicked at 140 bpm of stepping in place tempo. Stepping in place tempo between 140 and 160 bpm is the most effective to optimize the response time. And, More effective response time was front leg roundhouse kick as compared with back leg roundhouse kick and, body roundhouse kick as compared with head roundhouse kick. The findings in this study will provide useful information for performance improvement and will help with strategy for taekwondo competition.

Exploratory Study on the Phenomena of Entrepreneurship Education in Food and Agriculture Sectors Based on the Grounded Theory Approach (근거이론접근법에 기반한 농식품분야 창업교육현상에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Seol, Byung Moon
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzes the entrepreneurship education phenomena for agri-food entrepreneurs whose main business is the production of agricultural products and the sale of processed products, using the qualitative study Strauss & Corbin(1998)'s evidence theory approach. From the entrepreneur's point of view, I would like to summarize the phenomena that appear in education, and to prepare a theoretical basis for explaining the phenomena. The importance of entrepreneurship education is emphasized to cultivate the ability to develop and provide products tailored to customers. The necessity of education leads to an increase in demand according to the situational awareness of the founders, and the quantitative increase in entrepreneurship education in the agri-food sector is a clear trend. Inevitably, the need for various discussions on systematic and effective entrepreneurship education is raised. For the study, an interview was conducted with preliminary or entrepreneur who have experienced entrepreneurship education in the agri-food sector. As a research method, I use Strauss & Corbin(1998)'s approach and analyze qualitative data using QSR's NVIVO 12 program. Through this study, it was found that contextual and systematic entrepreneurship education in the agri-food sector has the effect of strengthening competitiveness and strengthening sales. There is a need for follow-up management of trainees. Strengthening the competitiveness of start-ups is based on training professional manpower through education and linking regions with cities. Strengthening sales is based on product planning and market development. This study explores entrepreneurship education in the agri-food sector, which has not been actively conducted in the past. Exploratory analysis on the experiences of the founders of agri-food sector as education demanders has an important meaning for understanding the phenomenon of start-up education.

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Availability Assessment of Single Frequency Multi-GNSS Real Time Positioning with the RTCM-State Space Representation Parameters (RTCM-SSR 보정요소 기반 1주파 Multi-GNSS 실시간 측위의 효용성 평가)

  • Lee, Yong-Chang;Oh, Seong-Jong
    • Journal of Cadastre & Land InformatiX
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.107-123
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    • 2020
  • With stabilization of the recent multi-GNSS infrastructure, and as multi-GNSS has been proven to be effective in improving the accuracy of the positioning performance in various industrial sectors. In this study, in view that SF(Single frequency) GNSS receivers are widely used due to the low costs, evaluate effectiveness of SF Real Time Point Positioning(SF-RT-PP) based on four multi-GNSS surveying methods with RTCM-SSR correction streams in static and kinematic modes, and also derive response challenges. Results of applying SSR correction streams, CNES presented good results compared to other SSR streams in 2D coordinate. Looking at the results of the SF-RT-PP surveying using SF signals from multi-GNSS, were able to identify the common cause of large deviations in the altitude components, as well as confirm the importance of signal bias correction according to combinations of different types of satellite signals and ionospheric delay compensation algorithm using undifferenced and uncombined observations. In addition, confirmed that the improvement of the infrastructure of Multi-GNSS allows SF-RT-SPP surveying with only one of the four GNSS satellites. In particular, in the case of code-based SF-RT-SPP measurements using SF signals from GPS satellites only, the difference in the application effect between broadcast ephemeris and SSR correction for satellite orbits/clocks was small, but in the case of ionospheric delay compensation, the use of SBAS correction information provided more than twice the accuracy compared to result of the Klobuchar model. With GPS and GLONASS, both the BDS and GALILEO constellations will be fully deployed in the end of 2020, and the greater benefits from the multi-GNSS integration can be expected. Specially, If RT-ionospheric correction services reflecting regional characteristics and SSR correction information reflecting atmospheric characteristics are carried out in real-time, expected that the utilization of SF-RT-PPP survey technology by multi-GNSS and various demands will be created in various industrial sectors.

Investigation of aerodynamic evaluation in female patients undergoing thyroidectomy (갑상선절제술을 받은 여성 환자의 공기역학 검사변수 조사)

  • Kang, Young Ae;Kwon, In Sun;Won, Ho-Ryun;Chang, Jae Won;Koo, Bon Seok
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2020
  • Breathing is the voice's driving force and also acts as a regulator of larynx function and efficiency. Respiratory distress is a side effect of general anesthesia in thyroid surgery. Therefore, this study's objective was to provide practical and complementary information for voice recovery after thyroid surgery, based on aerodynamic evaluation pre- and post-thyroidectomy. From May 2014 to July 2015, aerodynamic evaluations were performed on 34 female patients diagnosed with thyroid papillary cancer one week before surgery (PRE), one month after surgery (P1), and three months after surgery (P3). The Phonatory Aerodynamic System (model 6600, KayPENTAX, USA) was employed for this purpose, and a total of 29 analysis parameters were selected. The results showed statistically significant differences in peak expiratory airflow (p=0.004), mean pitch (p<0.01), expiration airflow duration (p=0.001), and expiratory volume (p=0.018), based on time factors. In the comparison of time factors, peak expiratory airflow and mean pitch parameters were different in PRE-P1 and PRE-P3. Expiration airflow duration and expiratory volume parameters were different in PRE-P3 and P1-P3. The interaction effect of time and surgical range was significant only for expiratory volume (p=0.024). Female patients who undergo thyroidectomy require post-operative breathing training, and exhalation improvement is considered to reflect a positive lifestyle after surgery.

Monitoring Technique of Pumpkin Fruit Flies Using Terpinyl Acetate-Protein Diet Lure and Development of Its Spraying Formulation for The Fly Control (Terpinyl acetate-단백질먹이 유인제를 이용한 호박과실파리류 연중발생 모니터링 기술 및 살포용 방제 제형 개발)

  • Kim, Yonggyun;Ahn, Jeong Joon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2020
  • Two tephritid fruit flies are infesting pumpkins in Korea. Both are classified into genus of Zeugodacus. The striped fruit fly, Z. scutellata, males are attracted to a lure called Cuelure (CL), which has been used to monitor the occurrence of this fruit fly in the crop field. In contrast, no effective male lure was not developed to monitor the pumpkin fruit fly, Z. depressa. Protein diet lure has been used to attract females of most fruit flies. The addition of terpinyl acetate (TA) was effective to increase the attractiveness of Z. depressa. This study aimed to monitor the occurrence of Z. depressa in pumpkin field with TA-protein diet lure. To validate the efficiency of TA-protein diet lure, Z. scutellata was monitored in a year of 2019 using CL and TA-protein diet lures, and the yearly monitoring data were compared. The occurrence patterns derived from both lures were similar except late season after October. The extended catches of TA-protein diet lure might be explained by the adult diapause induction of Z. scutellata at late September. Monitoring Z. depressa with TA-protein diet lure gave two peaks at mid July and August-September, in which more than 80% catches were females. Based on the attractiveness of TA-protein diet lure, its wettable powder with an addition of spinosad insecticide was formulated and sprayed to pumpkin crops. After 7 days post-spray, the control efficacy recorded more than 70%. However, the control efficacies decreased as the time progressed after the spray. These results demonstrated the application of TA-protein diet lure for monitoring occurrence of Z. depressa in pumpkin-cultivating field conditions. The wettable powder containing spinosad can be applied to develop a new control agent against two pumpkin fruit flies.

Prediction of Urban Flood Extent by LSTM Model and Logistic Regression (LSTM 모형과 로지스틱 회귀를 통한 도시 침수 범위의 예측)

  • Kim, Hyun Il;Han, Kun Yeun;Lee, Jae Yeong
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.273-283
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    • 2020
  • Because of climate change, the occurrence of localized and heavy rainfall is increasing. It is important to predict floods in urban areas that have suffered inundation in the past. For flood prediction, not only numerical analysis models but also machine learning-based models can be applied. The LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) neural network used in this study is appropriate for sequence data, but it demands a lot of data. However, rainfall that causes flooding does not appear every year in a single urban basin, meaning it is difficult to collect enough data for deep learning. Therefore, in addition to the rainfall observed in the study area, the observed rainfall in another urban basin was applied in the predictive model. The LSTM neural network was used for predicting the total overflow, and the result of the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) was applied as target data. The prediction of the inundation map was performed by using logistic regression; the independent variable was the total overflow and the dependent variable was the presence or absence of flooding in each grid. The dependent variable of logistic regression was collected through the simulation results of a two-dimensional flood model. The input data of the two-dimensional flood model were the overflow at each manhole calculated by the SWMM. According to the LSTM neural network parameters, the prediction results of total overflow were compared. Four predictive models were used in this study depending on the parameter of the LSTM. The average RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) for verification and testing was 1.4279 ㎥/s, 1.0079 ㎥/s for the four LSTM models. The minimum RMSE of the verification and testing was calculated as 1.1655 ㎥/s and 0.8797 ㎥/s. It was confirmed that the total overflow can be predicted similarly to the SWMM simulation results. The prediction of inundation extent was performed by linking the logistic regression with the results of the LSTM neural network, and the maximum area fitness was 97.33 % when more than 0.5 m depth was considered. The methodology presented in this study would be helpful in improving urban flood response based on deep learning methodology.

우리나라의 모자보건사업 (여성과 어린이 건강문제와 증진방안)

  • Park Jeong-Han
    • 대한예방의학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.3-17
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    • 2002
  • 국민건강은 국가발전의 기본조건이다. 국민건강은 건강한 어린이의 출산에서 비롯되고, 건강한 어린이의 출산을 위하여 여성이 건강해야 한다 따라서 여성과 어린이 건강보호와 증진을 위한 모자보건사업은 국가보건사업 중 최우선 사업으로 추진되어야 한다. 우리나라의 모자보건사업은 1960대부터 보건소를 통하여 가족계획, 산전관리, 안전분만유도, 예방접종을 중심으로 하였다. 1980년대에 들어와 전국민의료보험의 실현과 국민생활수준의 향상 등으로 산전관리 수진율과 시설분만율이 급격히 증가하여 1990년대 후반에는 거의 100%에 도달하였고, 가족계획실천율도 1991년에 79.4%까지 증가하여 합계출산율이 1.6으로 감소하였고, 어린이 기본예방접종률도 90%이상이 되어 전염병 발생률이 현저히 감소하였다. 전통적인 모자보건사업 관련 지표들이 이렇게 향상되자 일선 보건요원에서부터 중앙정부의 정책결정권자에 이러기까지 모자보건사업에 대한 관심도가 떨어져 중앙부처의 모자보건업무 담당 부서도 축소되고, 모자보건 사업도 쇠퇴하였다. 그러나 어린이와 여성의 건강실태를 자세히 들여다보면 심각한 문제들이 대두되고 있다. 시설 분만율의 증가에 따라 제왕절개분만율이 40%대까지 급증하였고, 모유수유률은 10%대로 떨어졌다. 어린이의 체격은 커지고 있으나 체력은 떨어지고, 비만한 어린이가 급증하여 당뇨병과 같은 성인병 유병률이 어린이들에게 증가하고, 사고에 의한 어린이 사망과 장애가 늘고 있다. 또한 청소년들의 흡연율과 음주률이 증가하고, 성적 성숙이 빨라지고 사회의 개방풍조로 성(性)활동 연령이 낮아지고 성활동이 증가하여 혼전임신과 성폭력이 증가하고 있다. 여성들은 일찍 단산하고, 폐경 연령은 높아지고, 평균수명은 길어져 중년기와 장년기 그리고 노년기가 길어져 각종 만성질환에 이환될 기회가 늘어났다. 이러한 시기의 중요 건강문제들은 뇌혈관질환, 폐암, 유방암, 골다공증, 뇨실금 등과 같이 해결하기 어려운 것들이다. 이렇게 어린이와 여성들에게 새로운 건강문제들이 대두되고 있으나 이에 대한 대응정책이 없었고, 따라서 새로운 모자보건사업이 개발되지 않았으며 일선 보건요원의 훈련도 없었다. 그리고 이러한 건강실태를 파악하여 대책을 마련하고, 보건사업을 평가할 수 있는 보건정보체계가 없는 실정이다. 1990년대 중반에 소수의 학자들이 어린이와 여성건강문제의 심각성을 제기하고, 모자보건사업 활성화의 필요성을 주장하여 보건복지부가 '모자보건선도보건사업'이라는 이름으로 1999년부터 2001년까지 3년간 23개 보건소에서 시범사업을 시행하였다. 이 시범사업에서는 한정된 자원으로 여성과 어린이 보건문제를 효과적으로 해결하기 위해 새로운 보건사업의 개발과 효율적으로 수행하는 방법의 개발에 역점을 두어 많은 성과를 거두었다. 시범사업의 경험을 바탕으로 2002년에는 전국의 45개 보건소로 확대해나가고 있다. 모자보건선도보건사업에서는 임산부가 대상이었던 기존의 모자보건사업과는 달리 신생아, 영유아, 학동기 어린이, 청소년, 그리고 신혼부부에서부터 장년기 여성에 이르기까지 사업대상을 확대하고 생애주기에 따라 지역사회 건강문제해결을 목표로 한 보건사업을 수행하도록 하였다. 사업수행 과정에서 보건소는 지역내 대학과 협력체계를 구축하여 기술적 지원을 받고, 보건요원의 교육 훈련을 통해 사업기획 능력과 전문지식과 기술을 향상시켰고, 보건교육에 필요한 시설과 장비를 구입하였고, 민간의료기관과 연계하여 보건서비스의 질을 향상시켰다. 모자보건 선도보건소에서 제공하는 서비스는 취약계층 중심의 보건교육, 상담 및 지도, 고위험대상자 조기발견 및 민간기관 의뢰 및 주구관리, 질병 조기발견을 위한 검진 의뢰, 지역 보건통계 생산과 관리, 그리고 지역내 가용자원 안내 등이며, 저소득층에 대해서는 민간의료기관에 의뢰 또는 검진비용을 지원하였다. 이와 같이 지역사회 민간기관과 협력체계를 구축함에 따라 대상자를 지속적으로 관리할 수 있는 정보를 공유하게 되었고, 건강증진 및 질병예방, 치료, 사후관리를 포함한 지속적이고 포괄적인 서비스를 제공할 수 있게 되었다. 특히 고위험 및 건강의심 대상, 임부와 장년기 여성에 대해서는 건강검진서비스를 과감히 민간기관에 의뢰, 위탁하친 보건소는 상담자, 정보관리자로서의 역할로 전환할 수 있었다. 그러나 사업관리자의 양적 평가에 대한 고정관념과 질적 평가에 대한 인식부족, 기본 생정통계와 정보체계의 미비로 인한 부정확한 통계생산, 사업요원의 전문지식과 기술 부족, 그리고 인력부족 등이 문제점으로 대두되었다. 효율적인 사업확산과 조기 정착을 위해 중앙정부의 일관성 있는 정책과 재정적 지원이 필수적이며, 보건정보체계확립, 그리고 공공보건기관과 민간의료기관간의 공식적인 협력체계확립이 필요하다. 사업추진 모니터링 및 평가, 조정을 위하여 중앙에 '모자보건 선도사업 기술지원단'을 구성하여 운영하고, 프로그램 운영이 잘되는 보건소를 특성화 보건소로 지원 육성하고, 사업요원의 업무 적정화를 위한 보건소 조직과 기존 보건사업체계의 평가와 재편이 필요하다. 보건사업요원의 자질 향상을 위한 지속적인 교육 훈련 시스템과 보건통계생산 관리를 위한 정보체계의 구축이 요구된다. 모자보건사업관련 보건교육자료를 수집하고 개발하여 전국 보건소에 공급하는 중앙 보건교육자료 및 정보센터가 필요하다.

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Solution Structure of 21-Residue Peptide (Asp 84-Leu 104), Functional Site derived from $p16^{INK4A}$ ($p16^{INK4A}$ 단백질 활성부위(Asp 84-Leu 104)의 용액상 구조)

  • Lee, Ho-Jin;Ahn, In-Ae;Ro, Seonggu;Choi, Young-Sang;Yoon, Chang No;Lee, Kang-Bong
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.494-503
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    • 2000
  • A 21-residue peptide corresponding to amino acids 84-104 of $p16^{INK4A}$, the tumor suppressor, has been synthesized and its structure was studied by Circular Dichroism, $^1H$ NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. A p16-derived peptide (84-104 amino acids) forming stable complex with CDK4 and CDK6 inhibits the ability of CDK4/6 to phosphorylate pRb in vitro, and blocks cell-cycle progression through G1/S phase as shown in the function of the full-length p16. Its NMR spectral data including NOEs, $^3J_{NH-H{\alpha}}$ coupling constants, $C_{\alpha}H$ chemical shift, the average amplitude of amide chemical shift oscillation and temperature coefficients indicate that the secondary structure of a p16-derived peptide is similar to that of the same region of full-length p16, which consists of helix-turn-helix structure. The 3-D distance geometry structure based on NOE-hased distance and torsion angle restraints is characterized by ${\gamma}$-turn conformation between residues $Gly^{89}-Leu^{91}$(${\varphi}_{i+1}=-79.8^{\circ}$, ${\varphi}_{i+1}=60.2^{\circ}$) as evidenced in a single crystal structure for the corresponding region of p18 or p19, but is undefined at both the N and C termini. This compact and rigid ${\gamma}$-turn region is considered to stabilize the structure of p16-derived peptide and serve as a site recognizing cyelin dependent kinase, and this well-defined ${\gamma}$-turn structure could be utilized for the design of anti-cancer drug candidates.

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Effect of Bottom Hole Pressure and Depressurization Rate on Stability and Gas Productivity of Hydrate-bearing Sediments during Gas Production by Depressurization Method (감압법을 이용한 가스 생산 시 하이드레이트 부존 퇴적층의 지반 안정성 및 가스 생산성에 대한 시추 공저압 및 감압 속도의 영향)

  • Kim, Jung-Tae;Kang, Seok-Jun;Lee, Minhyeong;Cho, Gye-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2021
  • The presence of the hydrate-bearing sediments in Ulleung Basin of South Korea has been confirmed from previous studies. Researches on gas production methods from the hydrate-bearing sediments have been conducted worldwide. As production mechanism is a complex phenomenon in which thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical phenomena occur simultaneously, it is difficult to accurately conduct the productivity and stability analysis of hydrate bearing sediments through lab-scale experiments. Thus, the importance of numerical analysis in evaluating gas productivity and stability of hydrate-bearing sediments has been emphasized. In this study, the numerical parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of the bottom hole pressure and the depressurization rate on the gas productivity and stability of hydrate-bearing sediments during the depressurization method. The numerical analysis results confirmed that as the bottom hole pressure decreases, the productivity increases and the stability of sediments deteriorates. Meanwhile, it was shown that the depressurization rate did not largely affect the productivity and stability of the hydrate-bearing sediments. In addition, sensitivity analysis for gas productivity and stability of the sediments were conducted according to the depressurization rate in order to establish a production strategy that prevents sand production during gas production. As a result of the analysis, it was confirmed that controlling the depressurization rate from a low value to a high value is effective in securing the stability. Moreover, during gas production, the subsidence of sediments occurred near the production well, and ground heave occurred at the bottom of the production well due to the pressure gradient. From these results, it was concluded that both the productivity and stability analyses should be conducted in order to determine the bottom hole pressure when producing gas using the depressurization method. Additionally, the stress analysis of the production well, which is induced by the vertical displacements of sediments, should be evaluated.

A Study Covering the Comparative Analysis of Educational Systems in Major Countries for Regular Cybersecurity Education (사이버보안 정규교육화를 위한 주요국 교육체계 비교분석 연구)

  • YOO, Jiyeon
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.397-405
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    • 2021
  • With the recent phenomenon of the Intelligence Information Society, the cyber security paradigm has begun to change. In particular, the increase of the interconnectedness of the hyperlinked society has extended the scope of damage that can be caused by cyber threats to the real world. In addition to that, it can also be a risk to any given individual who could accompany a crisis that has to do with public safety or national security. Adolescents who are digital natives are more likely to be exposed to cyber threats, which is mainly due to the fact that they are significantly more involved in cyber activities and they also possess insufficient security comprehension and safety awareness. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen cyber security capabilities of every young individual, so that they can effectively protect themselves against cyber threats and better manage their cyber activities. It examines the changes of the security paradigm and the necessity for cyber security education, which is in direct accordance to the characteristics of a connected society that further suggests directions and a basic system of cyber security education, through a detailed analysis of the current state of Domestic and Overseas Cyber Security Education. The purpose of this study was to define cybersecurity competencies that are necessary within an intelligent information society, and to propose a regular curriculum for strengthening cybersecurity competencies, through the comparison and meticulous analysis of both domestic and overseas educational systems that are pertinent to cybersecurity competencies. Accordingly, a cybersecurity competency system was constructed, by reflecting C3-Matrix, which is a cyber competency system model of digital citizens. The cybersecurity competency system consists of cyber ethics awareness, cyber ethics behavior, cyber security and cyber safety. In addition to this, based on the basic framework of the cybersecurity competency system, the relevant education that is currently being implemented in the United States, Australia, Japan and Korea were all compared and analyzed. From the insight gained through the analysis, the domestic curriculum was finally presented. The main objective of this new unified understanding, was to create a comprehensive and effective cyber security competency curriculum.