• Title/Summary/Keyword: 내포량

### A Study on Intensive Quantities Handled in Korean Elementary Math Textbooks and Workbooks (우리나라 초등학교 수학 교과서 및 익힘책에서 취급하는 내포량에 관한 연구)

• Choi, Jong Hyeon;Ko, Jun Seok;Lee, Jeong Eun;Park, Kyo Sik
• Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
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• v.20 no.1
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• pp.1-15
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• 2016
• In this paper, the following three issues are discussed in connection with intensive quantities. (1) Is there any relationship among intensive quantity, per unit quantity, and ratio? (2) Which intensive quantities obtained by two same extensive quantities are handled? And How are they handled? (3) Which intensive quantities obtained by two different extensive quantities are handled? And How are they handled? Based on the results of this discussions, three implications are suggested as conclusions to explore the direction for the development of handling intensive quantities in elementary math textbooks and workbooks. Firstly, it is necessary to systematize the systemize a series of processes to handle intensive quantities. There is a need to rethink to use terms like speed and velocity before handling the ratio. Secondly, there is a need to rethink the definition of intensive quantities which have the particular names. For example, it is necessary to rethink using average distance in the definition of speed and the average population in the definition of density of population. Thirdly, it is necessary to consider the limiting the kinds of intensive quantities obtained by two same extensive quantities handled in the elementary math. There is a need to set limit to them which are used in daily life, and there is a need to rethink to use them which are used in the specialized area. There is a need to rethink the using hitting ratio in the form of %.

### The Mean Formula of Implicate Quantity (내포량의 평균 공식과 조작적 학습법)

• Kim, Myung-Woon
• Journal for History of Mathematics
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• v.23 no.3
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• pp.121-140
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• 2010
• This study presents one universal mean formula of implicate quantity for speed, temperature, consistency, density, unit cost, and the national income per person in order to avoid the inconvenience of applying different formulas for each one of them. This work is done by using the principle of lever and was led to the formula of two implicate quantity, $M=\frac{x_1f_1+x_2f_2}{f_1+f_2}$, and to help the understanding of relationships in this formula. The value of ratio of fraction cannot be added but it shows that it can be calculated depending on the size of the ratio. It is intended to solve multiple additions with one formula which is the expansion of the mean formula of implicate quantity. $M=\frac{x_1f_1+x_2f_2+{\cdots}+x_nf_n}{N}$, where $f_1+f_2+{\cdots}+f_n=N$. For this reason, this mean formula will be able to help in physics as well as many other different fields in solving complication of structures.

### Analysis on High School Students' Recognitions and Expressions of Changes in Concentration as a Rate of Change (변화율 관점에서 농도 변화에 대한 인식과 표현의 변화 과정에 대한 분석)

• Lee, Dong Gun;Kim, Suk Hui;Ahn, Sang Jin;Shin, Jae Hong
• Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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• v.26 no.3
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• pp.333-354
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• 2016
• The aim of the present study is twofold. One is to confirm a hypothesis that a student's rate concept influences her conceiving change of a function in the view of rate of change and the other is to build up foundations for understanding the transition process from her rate concept to the concept of rate of change when she investigates the change of concentration as an intensive quantity. We explored how three participating high school students recognized and expressed change of given functions by using their rate concept as a conceptual tool. The result indicates that a change in students' rate concept might have an effect on understanding how function values change in term of rate of change. We also expect that it could be a catalyst for further research for clarifying the relationship between students' rate concept and their development of a concept of rate of change as a foundation for learning calculus.

### A Study on Quantity Calculus in Elementary Mathematics Textbooks (초등학교 수학교과서에서의 양(量)의 계산에 대한 연구)

• Jeong, Eun-Sil
• Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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• v.20 no.4
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• pp.445-458
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• 2010
• This study intends to investigate the process of the development of quantity concept and how to deal with the quantity calculus in elementary school, and to find out the implication for improving the curriculum and mathematics textbooks of Korea. There had been the binary Greek categories of discrete number and continuous magnitude in quantity concept, but by the Stevin's introduction of decimal, the unification of these notions became complete. As a result of analyzing of the curriculum and mathematics textbooks of Korea, there is a tendency to disregard the teaching of quantity and its calculus compared to the other countries. Especially multiplication and division of quantity is seldom treated in elementary mathematics textbooks. So these should be reconsidered in order to seek the direction for improvement of mathematic teaching. And Korea's textbooks need the emphasis on the quantity calculus and on constructing quantity concept.

### Direction-Embedded Branch Prediction based on the Analysis of Neural Network (신경망의 분석을 통한 방향 정보를 내포하는 분기 예측 기법)

• Kwak Jong Wook;Kim Ju-Hwan;Jhon Chu Shik
• Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea CI
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• v.42 no.1
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• pp.9-26
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• 2005
• In the pursuit of ever higher levels of performance, recent computer systems have made use of deep pipeline, dynamic scheduling and multi-issue superscalar processor technologies. In this situations, branch prediction schemes are an essential part of modem microarchitectures because the penalty for a branch misprediction increases as pipelines deepen and the number of instructions issued per cycle increases. In this paper, we propose a novel branch prediction scheme, direction-gshare(d-gshare), to improve the prediction accuracy. At first, we model a neural network with the components that possibly affect the branch prediction accuracy, and analyze the variation of their weights based on the neural network information. Then, we newly add the component that has a high weight value to an original gshare scheme. We simulate our branch prediction scheme using Simple Scalar, a powerful event-driven simulator, and analyze the simulation results. Our results show that, compared to bimodal, two-level adaptive and gshare predictor, direction-gshare predictor(d-gshare. 3) outperforms, without additional hardware costs, by up to 4.1% and 1.5% in average for the default mont of embedded direction, and 11.8% in maximum and 3.7% in average for the optimal one.