Browse > Article

Newchwang before Newchwang, c1368-1863  

Chan, Kai Yiu (National Cheng Kung University)
Publication Information
Journal of East-Asian Urban History / v.3, no.1, 2021 , pp. 21-56 More about this Journal
Though known for its connections with maritime trade at varying degrees before the rise of the Manchus and their Qing Empire, Newchwang as a fortress did not become a populous urban settlement in the nineteenth century when the Euro-American observers arrived. Through examining the history of this trade-related locale in the Qing Empire, this article explores the broader historical context, especially the Eight Banners System of the Manchus, which prevented Newchwang from developing into a port-city, and the implications behind.
Newchwang; Eight Bannermen System; fortress; port-city; Manchu/Qing Empire;
Citations & Related Records
연도 인용수 순위
  • Reference
1 Zhang, S. Z. (2012). Niudai: Ming-Qing Liagdai Zhong-Chao Jiaotong Kao [Bondage: An investigation on the communications between China and Korea during the Ming and Qing Dynasties紐帶--明清兩代中朝交通考]. Heilongjiang Renmin Chubanshe [黑龍江人民出版社].
2 Kim, C. E. (n. d.). Yeonhaenghoonjilok [ Records of Yeonhaenghoonji 燕行塤箎錄]. In C. E. Kim (Ed.), Laojiazhaiji Noga jaejip [Collected works of Nogajae老稼齋] Retrieved from
3 Lai, H. M. (1997). Tianhuang Guizhou: Qing Huangzu de Jiezeng Jiegou yu Jingji Shenghuo [The Qing imperial lineage: Its hierarchical structure and economic life 天潢貴冑:清皇族的階層結構與經濟生活]. Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica.
4 Zhao Z. Q. (2002). Baqi yu Baqi Zidi [The Eight Banners and the Eight Banners' Sons八旗與八旗子弟]. In Y. Zhi, (Ed.), Baqishidu yu Manzu Wenhua [The Eight Banners System and Manchu culture 八旗制度與滿族文化] (pp. 74-88). Liaoning Minzu Chubanshe [遼寧民族出版社].
5 Lee, J. S. (n. d.). Yeonhaenglok [Record of travel to Beijing 燕行錄]. In J. S. (Ed.), Yak-ong-yugo [The posthumous works of Yak-ong 櫟翁遺稿] Retrieved from
6 Diao, S. R., & Yi, X. G. (1994). Jinsanbainian Dongbei Tudi Kaifzshi [History of land development in Northeast in the last three hundred years近三百年東北土地開發史]. Jilin Wenshi Chubanshe [吉林文史出版社].
7 Lee, Y. (n. d.). Yeon-do-gihaeng [Travel notes along the way to Beijing 燕途紀行]. In Y, Lee (Ed.), Song-gyejip [Collected works of Song-gye松溪集]. Retrieved from
8 Li, B. Z. (2000). Jiangnan de Zaoqi Gongyehua 1550-1580 nian [Proto-industrialization of the Jiangnan 1550-1850 江南的早期工業化 1550-1850年]. Shehuikexue Wenxian Chubanshe [中國社會科學文獻出版社].
9 Li, G. H. & Li, Z. W. (2014). Liaohekou Yanbian Lishi yu Qushi Fenxi [History and tendency analysis of the changes in the Liao River's estuary遼河口演變歷史与趨勢分析]. Dongbei Shuili Shuidian [Water Resources & Hydropower of Northeast東北水利水電], 8, 66-72.
10 Lee, S. K. (n. d.). Ji-bongjip [Collected works on Ji-bong芝峯集] Retreived from
11 Min, J. J. (n. d). Yeonhaeng-ilgi [Diary in Yeonhaeng燕行日記]. In J. J. Min (Ed.), No-bongjip [Collected works of No-bong 老峯集]. Retrieved from
12 Skinner, G. W. (Ed.). (1977). The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press.
13 Cho, S. S. (n. d.), Chujaejip [Collected works of Chujae秋齋集] Retreived from
14 Nam, Y. I. (n. d.). Yeonhaenglok [ Records of travel to Beijing 燕行錄]. In I. Y. Nam (Ed.), Hogokjip [Collected works of Hogok壺谷集]. Retrieved from
15 Perdue, P. C. (2005). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
16 MacPherson, A. (1866). Report on the Trade at the Port of Newchwang, for the Year 1865, Inspector General of Customs, Reports on the Trade at the Ports in China Open by Treaty to Foreign Trade, for the Year 1865. Imperial Maritime Customs' Press.
17 Army Map Service (PV), Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, (comp.) (1956). Ying-k'ou, China. Army Map Service (PV), Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.
18 Cosmo, N. D. (2016). The Extension of Ch'ing Rule over Mongolia, Sinkiang, and Tibet, 1636-1800. In W. J. Peterson (Ed.), The Cambridge History of China Volume 9 Part Two: The Ch'ing Dynasty to 1800 (pp. 111-145). Cambridge University Press.
19 Chan, K. Y. (2015). Changing Society of Anping and Takow, 1683-1894. In Y. Zheng (Ed.), Dongya Haiyu Wangluo yu Gangshi Shehui [East-Asian maritime networks and port-city societies東亞海域網絡與港市社會] (pp. 163-226). Liren Shuju [里仁書局].
20 Choi, R. (n. d.). Gan-i-jip [Collected works of Gan-i簡易集] Retrieved from
21 Crossley, P. K. (2002). The Conquest Elite of the Ch'ing Empire. In W. J. Peterson (Ed.), The Cambridge History of China Volume 9 Part One: The Ch'ing Empire to 1800 (pp. 310-359). Cambridge University Press.
22 Dan, Y. Z. (Ed.). (1992). Tianxia Lucheng Tuyin [Roadmap of all roads under heaven and earth天下路程圖引]. In Z. Yang (Ed. and Annotated), Tianxia Shuilu Lucheng, Tianxia Lucheng Tuyin, and Keshang Yilan Xingmi [Distances of roads by water and on land under heaven and earth 天下水陸路程, Roadmap of all roads under heaven and earth天下路程圖引, A list of reminders for sojourning merchants客商一覽醒迷] (pp. 354-514). Shanxi Renmin Chubanshe[山西人民出版社].
23 Anonymous. (1985). Qing Shilu [The verifiable records of the Qing Dynasty清實錄], 60 vols. Zhonghua Shuju [中華書局].
24 Lu, H. C. (1994). Ming, Qing, Minguo Shiqi Liaohe Liuyu Lishi Dili Shulue [Overview of historical geography of the Liao River region in the Ming, Qing, and Republican periods明,清,民國時期遼河流域歷史地理述略]. Songjiang Xuekan Shehuikexueban [松江學刊社會科學版], 3, 36- 41.
25 Cho, M. M. (n. d.). Siyeonhaenglok[詩燕行錄] Retrieved from
26 Elliot, M. C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press.
27 Hosie, A. (1904). Manchuria: Its People, Resources and Recent History. Charles Scribner's Sons.
28 Liaoningsheng Dang'anguan [遼寧省檔案館) (comp.) (1993). Shengjing Neiwufu Liangzhuang Dang'an Huibian [Compilation of archival documents of the grain estates from the Imperial Household in Shengjing盛京內務府糧莊 檔案匯編]. Liaoshen Shushe [遼瀋書社].
29 Liu, X. M. (2001). Manzu cong Buluo dao Guojia de Fazhan [Development of the Manchus from tribes to nation滿族從部 落到國家的發展]. Liaoning Minzu Chubanshe [遼寧民族出版社].
30 Lu, H. Y. (2002). Peidu Shengjing Qiren Chengfen Kaoshi - Jianlun Shengjing Baqi Zhufang de Chongjian [An analytical study of the composition of the Bannermen in the adjunct capital Shengjing --- A supplementary discussion on the reconstruction of Shengjing's Eight Banners defense陪都盛京奇人成分考述---兼論盛京八旗駐防的重建]. In Y. Zhi (Ed.), Baqishidu yu Manzu Wenhua [The Eight Banners System and Manchu culture八旗制度與滿族文化] (pp. 234-246). Liaoning Minzu Chubanshe [遼寧民族出版社].
31 Mackey, J. (1865). Office of Maritime Customs, Ying-tsz, Inspector General of Customs, Reports on Trade at the Ports of Shanghai, Canton, Swatow, Amoy, Ningpo, Hankow, Kiukiang, Chefoo, and Newchwang for the Year 1864. Imperial Maritime Customs' Press.
32 Li, G. R. (2002). State Building before 1644. In J. P. Willard (Ed.), The Cambridge History of China Volume 9 Part One: The Ch'ing Empire to 1800 (pp. 9-72). Cambridge University Press.
33 Wei, Y. (2009). Qingdai Jingqi Huitun Wenti Yanjiu [A study of the problems of the colony-settlements of the returned bannermen from Beijing in the Qing Dynasty清代京旗回屯問題研究]. Heilungjiang Daxue Chubashe [黑龍江大學出版社]
34 Ding, H. B., & Shi, Y. (2007). Qingdai Peidu Shengjing Yanjiu [A study of the adjunct imperial capital of Shengjing in the Qing Dynast 清代陪都盛京研究]. Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe [中國社會科學出版社].
35 Yang, X. C, & Zhou, Y. L. (1986). Qingdai Baqi Wanggong Guizu Xingshuaishi [History of the rise and decline of the princes and nobility of the Eight Banners in the Qing Dynasty清代八旗王公貴族興衰史]. Liaoning Renmin Chubanshe [遼寧人民出版社]
36 Thomas F. L., Inc. (comp.) (1922). Manchuria: Land of Opportunities. South Manchuria Railway/ Thomas F. Logan, Inc.
37 Xu, D. X., & Wu, C. M. (comp.) (1985). Zhongguo Zibenzhuyi Fazhanshi [A history of development of Chinese capitalism 中國資本主義發展史]. vol.1. Renmin Chubanshe [人民出版社].
38 Yang, Y. (1988). Mingdai Liaodong Dusi [The Liaodong Commander Board in Ming Dynasty明代遼東都司]. Zhongzhou Guji Chubanshe [中州古籍出版社].
39 Yi, B. Z., Chen, Y. F., & Li, F. (1992). Qingdai Manzhou Tudizhidu Yanjiu [A study of the land system in Manchuria of the Qing Dynasty清代滿洲土地制度研究]. Jilin Wenshi Chubanshe [吉林文史出版社].
40 Yang, S. Y., et. al. (2018). Manzu Jingjishi [Economic history of the Manchus滿族經濟史]. Shehui Kexue Wenxian Chubanshe [社會科學文獻出版社].
41 Li, Y. S. (Ed.). (1995). Yingkou Difangshi Yanjiu [Local historical research on Yingkou營口地方史硏究]. Liaoning Minzu Chubanshe [遼寧民族出版社].
42 Long, D. G. (2003). Jiangnan Shichangshi: Shiyi zhi Shijiu Shiji de Bianqian [History of the market in Jiangnan: Transformation from the 11th to 19th century江南市場史--十一至十九世紀的變]. Qinghua Daxue Chubanshe [清華大學出版社].
43 Shin, Y. G. (n. d.). I-lak-jeongjip [Collected works of I-lak-jeong二樂亭集]. Retrieved from
44 Ma, D. T, & Zhang, Z. M. (Eds.). (1992). Zhongguo Guoqing Congshu: Baixianshi Jingjishehui Diaocha, Yingkou Juan [Volumes on China's national condition: Social economic surveys on hundreds of counties and cities, the Yingkou volume中國國情叢書: 百縣市經濟社會調查 營口卷]. Zhongguo Dabaikaquanshu Chubanshe [中國大百科全書出版社].
45 Nishiyama, I. (comp.) (1928). Eiko [Yingkow營口]. Chu-Ni Bunka Kyōkai [中日文化協會].
46 Park, S. S. (n. d.). Seo-gyejip [Collected works of Seo-gye西溪集] Retrieved from
47 Szonyi, M. (2017). The Art of Being Governed: Everyday Politics in Late Imperial China. Princeton University Press.
48 Cheung, S. W. (2008). The Price of Rice: Market Integration in Eighteenth-Century China. Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University.
49 Lee, S. S. (n. d.). Samtanjip [Collections on Samtan三灘集]. Retrieved from
50 Bi, G. X., & Ren, L. (et. al. comp.) (2005). Liaodongzhi [Gazetteer of Liaodon, 遼東志]. Xianzhuang Shuj[線裝書局].
51 Kato, S. (1973). Kangxi Qianlong Shidai Guanneiwai de Tongshang [Trade between the inlands and outside the border gates during the Kangxi and Qianlong periods康熙乾隆時代關內外的通商]. In S. Kato (Trans., anonymous), Zhongguo Jingjishi Kaozheng [Investigation on the Chinese economic history中國經濟史考] (pp. 131-148). Shangwu Yinshuguan [商務印書館].
52 Cho, D. S. (n. d.). Sim-eom-yugo [Posthumous works of Sim-eom心庵遺稿]. Retrieved from
53 Elliott, M. C. (2006). Ethnicity in the Qing Eight Banners. In P. K. Crossley, H. F. Siu., & S. D. Sutton (Eds.), Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China (pp. 27-57). University of California Press.
54 So, S. Y. (n. d.). Yang-gokjip [Collected works in Yang-gok陽谷集]. Retrieved from
55 Huang, B., & Yang, Z. T. (2006). Yitong Lucheng Tuji [Mapping of the unified roads 統路程圖記]. In Z. Yang (Ed.), Mingdai Yizhankao [An investigation of the post stations in the Ming Dynasty, 明代驛站考] (pp. 195-292). Shanghai Guji Chubanshe [上海古籍出版社]
56 Ibahan, others, (comp.) (1684). Shengjing Tongzhi [The gazetteer of Shengjing 盛京通志] (n.p.).
57 Im, K. S. (1993). Qingchao Baqi Zhufang Xingshuaishi [History of rise and decline of the Eight Banners Garrisons in the Qing Dynast 清朝八旗駐防興衰史]. Sanlian Shudian [三聯書店].
58 Lee, H. M. (n. d.). O-bongjip [Collected works of O-bong五峯集]. Retrieved from
59 Yingkou Gangshi Bianweihui (comp.) (1995). Yingkou Gangshi [History of the Yingkou Port營口港史]. Renmin Jiaotong Chubanshe[人民交通出版社].
60 Zhang, C. W. (1978). Qing-Han Zongfan Maoyi [Tributary trade between Qing and Korea清韓宗藩貿易]. Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica [中央研究院近代史研究所].
61 Wu, C. M. (1985). Zhongguo Zibenzhuyi yu Guonei Shichang [China's capitalism and domestic market 中國資本主義與國 內市場]. Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe [中國社會科學出版社].
62 Zhang, S. Z. (2009). Ming-Qing Liangdai Lianghe Xiayou Liuxiangkao [An investigation on the direction of the Liao Rriver's course in the Ming-Qing periods明清兩代遼河下游流向考]. Dongbei Shidi [東北史地], 3, 15-22.
63 Wang, S. N., Wu, T. X., & Jin, Y. F. (comp.) (1983). Fengtian Tongzhi [Gazatteer of Fengian奉天通志]. Dongbei Wenshi Congshu Bianji Weiyuanhui [東北文史叢書編輯委員會] reprinted 1934 version.
64 Wang, W., Yang, X. L., & Wu, Z. Q. (2002). Zhong-Chao Guanxishi [History of the Sino-Korean relations 中朝關係史]. Shijie Zhishi Chubanshe [世界知識出版社].
65 Xiao, Z. C. (2010). Ming-Qing Shiqi Liaohe Pingyuan Dongbudiqu Hedao Bianqian yu Zhaoze Shidi de Kuozhang. [River course transformation and wetland expansion in the eastern Liao River region during the Ming-Qing periods明清 時期遼河平原東部地區河道變遷与沼澤濕地的擴展]. Dongbei Shidi[東北史地], 4, 76-81.
66 Yang, T. G., Sun, Z. H. (comp.) (1985). Shengjing Jiangyukao [An investigation on the territories of Shengjing盛京疆域考]. In Z, Xing (Ed.), Liaohai Congshu [Books on Liaoning遼海叢書] (Vol/ 6, p. 3). Books on Liaoning[遼海叢書].
67 Yang, Y. L., Wang, G. S., et. al. (1991). Qingdai Dongbeishi [History of the Northeast during the Qing times清代東北史]. Liaoning Jiaoyu Chubanshe [遼寧教育出版社].
68 Yejo-jeonhyangsa (comp.)(1680). Sang-eonseunglok [Colleted speeches of His Majesty 上言謄錄], 1649-1743. Retrieved from
69 Rowe, W. T. (2009). China's Last Empire: The Great Qing. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.