Browse > Article

Robust Watermarking Algorithm for 3D Mesh Models  

송한새 (서울대학교 전기공학부, 뉴미디어통신공동연구소)
조남익 (서울대학교 전기공학부, 뉴미디어통신공동연구)
김종원 (마크애니 연구소)
Publication Information
Journal of Broadcast Engineering / v.9, no.1, 2004 , pp. 64-73 More about this Journal
Abstract
A robust watermarking algorithm is proposed for 3D mesh models. Watermark is inserted into the 2D image which is extracted from the target 3D model. Each Pixel value of the extracted 2D image represents a distance from the predefined reference points to the face of the given 3D model. This extracted image is defined as “range image” in this paper. Watermark is embedded into the range image. Then, watermarked 3D mesh is obtained by modifying vertices using the watermarked range Image. In extraction procedure, the original model is needed. After registration between the original and the watermarked models, two range images are extracted from each 3D model. From these images. embedded watermark is extracted. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is robust against the attacks such as rotation, translation, uniform scaling, mesh simplification, AWGN and quantization of vertex coordinates.
Keywords
Robust watermarking; 3Dmesh;
Citations & Related Records
연도 인용수 순위
  • Reference
1 M. G. Wagner, 'Robust Watermarking of Polygonal Meshes,' Geometric Modeling and Processing 2000. pp. 201 -208, 2000
2 R. Ohbuchi, S. Takahashi, T. Miyazawa and A. Mukaiyama, 'Watermarking 3D Polygonal Meshes in the Mesh Spectral Domain,' Proc. Graphics Interface 2001, pp. 9-17, 2001
3 J. Orourke, 'Computational geometry in C : 2nd ed.,' Cambridge, UK, ; New York, NY, USA : Cambridge University Press, 1998
4 R. Ohbuchi, H. Masuda and M. Aono, 'Watermarking Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models Through Geometric and Topological Modifications,' IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp. 551 -560, May 1998
5 A. Fujimoto and K. Iwata, 'Accelerated Ray Tracing,' Proc. CG Tokyo '85, pp. 41-65, 1985
6 O. Benedens, 'Affine Invariant Watermarks for 3D polygonal and NURBS Based Models,' Springer, Information Security, Third International Workshop, ISW2000, vol. 1975, pp. 15-29, Australia, December 2000
7 E. Praun, H. Hoppe and A. Finkelstein, 'Robust Mesh Watermarking,' ACM the 26th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp. 49 - 56, New York, July 1999
8 S. Kanai, H. Date, and T. Kishinami, 'Digital Watermarking for 3D Polygons using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition,' Proc. Sixth IFIP WG 5.2 GEO-6, pp. 296-307, Tokyo Japan, Dec., 1998
9 P. Cignoni, C. Rocchini and R. Scopigno, 'Metro : measuring error on simplified surfaces,' Computer Graphics Forum, Blackwell Publishers, vol. 17(2), pp. 167-174, June 1998, 'http://vcg.isti.cnr.it/activities/surfacegrevis/simplification/metro.html
10 E. Paquet and M. Rioux, 'Nefertiti: A Query by Content Software for Three-Dimensional Models Databases Management,' 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling,1997. Proceedings., International Conference on Recent Advances in 1997, pp. 345-352, 1997
11 B.-L. Yeo and M. M. Yeung, 'Watermarking 3D objects for Verification,' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 36-45, January/February, 1999
12 O. Benedens, 'Geometry-based Watermarking of 3D Models,' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 19, pp. 46-55, Jan.-Feb 1999
13 R.J. Segura and F. R. Feito, 'An Algorithm for Determining Intersection Segment-Polygon in 3D,' Computers and Graphics published by Elsevier Science, Vol.22, Issue 5, pp. 587-592, October 1998
14 A. Fujimoto, T. Tanaka, and K. Iwata, 'ARTS: Accelerated Ray-Tracing System,' IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 16-26, April 1986
15 O. Benedens, 'Two High Capacity Methods for Embedding Public Watermarks into 3D Polygonal Models,' Proceedings of the Multimedia and Security-orkshop at ACM Multimedia 99, pp. 95 - 99, Orlando, Florida, 1999
16 Y. Chen, and G. Medioni, 'Object modeling by registration of multiple range images,' Image and Vision Computing 10, pp. 145-155, April 1992
17 R. Ohbuchi, H. Masuda and M. Aono, 'Watermarking Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models Through Geometric and Topological Modifications,' IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp. 551 -560, May 1998