AC and DC anodization on the electrochemical properties of SS304L: A comparison

  • Nur S. Azmi (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)) ;
  • Mohd N. Derman (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)) ;
  • Zuraidawani Che Daud (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP))
  • Received : 2023.07.28
  • Accepted : 2024.01.05
  • Published : 2024.06.25


This study investigates the application of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) anodization techniques on stainless steel 304L (SS304L) in an ethylene glycol and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) electrolyte solution to produce a nano-porous oxide layer. With limited research on AC anodizing of stainless steel, this study focuses on comparing AC and DC anodization in terms of current density versus time response, phase analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and corrosion rate determined by linear polarization. Both AC and DC anodization were performed for 60 minutes at 50 V in an electrolyte solution containing 0.5% NH4F and 3% H2O in ethylene glycol. The results show that AC anodization exhibited higher current density compared to DC anodization. XRD analysis revealed the presence of ferrite (α-Fe) and austenite (γ-Fe) phases in the as-received specimen, while both AC and DC anodized specimens exhibited only the γ-Fe phase. The corrosion rate of the AC-anodized specimen was measured at 0.00083 mm/year, lower than the corrosion rate of the DC-anodized specimen at 0.00197 mm/year. These findings indicate that AC anodization on stainless steel offers advantages in terms of higher current density, phase transformation, and lower corrosion rate compared to DC anodization. These results highlight the need for further investigation and exploration of AC anodization as a promising technique for enhancing the electrochemical properties of stainless steel.



The author would like to acknowledge the support from the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) under the grant number FRGS/1/2019/TK10/UNIMAP/02/2 from the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. Special thanks to Centre of Excellence for Frontier Materials Research (FrontMate) and Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE) for providing facilities and testing this project.


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