In vitro gas and methane production of some common feedstuffs used for dairy rations in Vietnam and Thailand

  • N. T. D., Huyen (Animal Nutrition Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University and Research) ;
  • J. Th. Schonewille (Department of Population Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University) ;
  • W. F. Pellikaan (Animal Nutrition Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University and Research) ;
  • N. X. Trach (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Vietnam National University of Agriculture) ;
  • W. H. Hendriks (Animal Nutrition Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University and Research)
  • Received : 2023.02.20
  • Accepted : 2023.07.14
  • Published : 2024.03.01


Objective: This study determined fermentation characteristics of commonly used feedstuffs, especially tropical roughages, for dairy cattle in Southeast Asia. This information is considered relevant in the context of the observed low milk fat content and milk production in Southeast Asia countries. Methods: A total of 29 feedstuffs commonly used for dairy cattle in Vietnam and Thailand were chemically analysed and subjected to an in vitro gas production (GP) test. For 72 h, GP was continuously recorded with fully automated equipment and methane (CH4) was measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h of incubation. A triphasic, nonlinear, regression procedure was applied to analyse GP profiles while a monophasic model was used to obtain kinetics related to CH4 production. Results: King grass and VA06 showed a high asymptotic GP related to the soluble- and non-soluble fractions (i.e. A1 and A2, respectively) and had the highest acetate to propionate ratio in the incubation fluid. The proportion of CH4 produced (% of GP at 72 h) was found to be not different (p>0.05) between the various grasses. Among the selected preserved roughages (n = 6) and whole crops (n = 4), sorghum was found to produce the greatest amount of gas in combination with a relatively low CH4 production. Conclusion: Grasses belonging to the genus Pennisetum, and whole crop sorghum can be considered as suitable ingredients to formulate dairy rations to enhance milk fat content in Vietnam/Thailand.



The authors also thank Mrs. Saskia van Laar-van Schuppen, Mrs. Xuan Huong van der Schans-Le and Mr. Michel Breuer for their technical assistance. The authors would like to thank Assist. Prof. Dr. Bui Quang Tuan, Prof. Dr. Le Duc Ngoan, Prof. Dr. Nguyen Van Thu, Dr. Tang Xuan Luu, Dr. Ho Thi Hoa, Assist. Prof. Dr. Chalermpon Yuangklang and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chalong Wachirapakorn for their assistance of identifying and selecting feedstuffs commonly used in Vietnam and Thailand.


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