Numerical investigations on anchor channels under quasi-static and high rate loadings - Case of concrete edge breakout failure

  • Kusum Saini (Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi) ;
  • Akanshu Sharma (Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University) ;
  • Vasant A. Matsagar (Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi)
  • Received : 2022.08.21
  • Accepted : 2023.07.06
  • Published : 2023.11.25


Anchor channels are commonly used for façade, tunnel, and structural connections. These connections encounter various types of loadings during their service life, including high rate or impact loading. For anchor channels that are placed close and parallel to an edge and loaded in shear perpendicular to and towards the edge, the failure is often governed by concrete edge breakout. This study investigates the transverse shear behavior of the anchor channels under quasi-static and high rate loadings using a numerical approach (3D finite element analysis) utilizing a rate-sensitive microplane model for concrete as constitutive law. Following the validation of the numerical model against a test performed under quasi-static loading, the rate-sensitive static, and rate-sensitive dynamic analyses are performed for various displacement loading rates varying from moderately high to impact. The increment in resistance due to the high loading rate is evaluated using the dynamic increase factor (DIF). Furthermore, it is shown that the failure mode of the anchor channel changes from global concrete edge failure to local concrete crushing due to the activation of structural inertia at high displacement loading rates. The research outcomes could be valuable for application in various types of connection systems where a high rate of loading is expected.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Research Grants: Bilateral Doctoral Program by Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdiens (DAAD) to conduct research at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. The authors also thank JORDAHL® for providing financial support for the experiments. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily of the funding agencies.


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