A Study on Site Planning to Improve Natural Surveillance in High-rise Apartment Estates

공동주택단지의 자연적 감시 향상을 위한 단지계획 개선연구

  • 정재용 (홍익대학교 건축도시대학 건축학부)
  • Received : 2022.01.16
  • Accepted : 2022.02.19
  • Published : 2022.03.30


In recent decades, addressing the issue of crime prevention has led to the application of CPTED in many industrialized counties. In Korea and in major cities throughout Asia, high-rise apartments have become the main form of housing, making crime prevention by Natural Surveillance extremely challenging. Currently, crime prevention measures are at a crossroad between CPTED based on community involvement and gated community based on an exclusionary system. This study examines the effectiveness of Natural Surveillance methods in high-rise apartments in Korea over time as apartment typology changes occur from land use intensification. The objective is to understand why Natural Surveillance methods are being replaced by other technological solutions such as CCTV in high-rise apartment complexes. This research examines the historical trend in apartment designs, identifies evolving surveillance issues, and analyzes Natural Surveillance coverage in housing complexes with various layouts and building forms. Comparisons were made with international examples to further assess the differences in layout planning and effectiveness of Natural Surveillance along with other aspects such as territoriality. This analysis indicated that most Korean high-rise apartment complexes are designed without considering Natural Surveillance at the design stage due to the pressures of maximizing profits.



이 논문은 2017년 홍익대학교 학술연구진흥비에 의하여 연구된 것임.


  1. British Columbia Housing, (2019). BC Housing Design and Construction Standards - Section 7: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, 2-10. Retrieved February 01, 2021 from
  2. Chandler Police Arizona (2017). CPTED Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Chandler Police Arizona, 1, 1-20.
  3. Cozens, P. (2014). Think Crime! Using Evidence, Theory and Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) for Planning Safer Cities. Quinns Rock Perth, WA: Praxis Education,
  4. Cozens, P., & Love, T. (2015). A review and current status of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Journal of Planning Literature, 30(4), 393-412.
  5. Crowe, T. (2000). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts(2nd ed). Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 46.
  6. Gang, B. (1999). History of Korean Housing Plan. 1, Community housing study meeting, Sejinsa, 291-330.
  7. Im, S., & Park, C. (1992). A study on the residential site design criteria for the prevention of crime, Journal of Architectural Institute of Korea, 8(10), 55-64.
  8. Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. London, UK: Jonathon Cope, 30-35.
  9. Jeffery, C. R. (1971). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
  10. Jeffery, C. R. (1976). Criminal behavior and the physical environment: a perspective. American Behavioral Scientist, 20, 149-174.
  11. Jung, I., & Yang, J. (2010). A study on prevention of urban crime using CPTED. The Society of Living Environment System, Korea(KSLES), 17(4), 434-446.
  12. Kang, K., So, S., & Son, B. (2021). Analysis of the importance of design elements by crime prevention environmental design application strategy, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 37(8), 93-100.
  13. Kim, S. (2012). Comparative analysis of CPTED in korea. The Korean Association of Police Science Review, 14(6), 78.
  14. Kim, J., & Jang, H. (2018). Crime prevention building standards are also applied to apartments under 500 households. Press release, Anti-Corruption & Civil Rights Commision, Retrieved on January 30, 2019 from
  15. Korea National Statistical Office (2017). Korean social trends 2017, Gong-gongnuli
  16. Lee, E., Kang, S., & Lee, K. (2008). A study on the application of crime prevention through environmental design for the district unit plan. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 24(2), 129-138.
  17. London borough of Barking & Dagenham, (2009). Planning Note 6: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, Retrieved on January 30, 2019 from
  18. Mallett, J. (2004). The queensland community crime prevention program and CPTED. 9th Annual international CPTED association conference (pp. 1-7). Brisbane: 9th Annual International CPTED Association Conference.
  19. National Police Agency (2005). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). 1, National Police Agency, Korea P & D Co., Ltd, 1-41.
  20. National Police Agency(KNPA) (2007). Design Guidelines for Crime Prevention. 1, National Police Agency, Web Site, 1-10.
  21. Newman, O. (1972). Defensible Space; Crime Prevention through Urban Design. New York: Macmillan.
  22. Newman, O. (1973). Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City. London, UK: Architectural Press, 50.
  23. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2004). Safer Places (The Planning System and Crime Prevention), Thomas Telford Publishing, Tonbridge, UK, 8-90.
  24. Park, H., & Kim, Y. (2008). The strategy and prospects of CPTED for sustainable urban development. Korean security science review, 17, 175-176.
  25. Park, H. (2009). A qualitative study of CPTED standardization based on grounded theory. Korean Association of Public Safety and Criminal Justice Review, 34, 157-197.
  26. Plaster Carter, S. (2002). Community CPTED. The Journal of the International Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Association, 1(1), 15-24.
  27. Pyo, C. (2003). Establishment of vulnerable public places for crime: The need for CCTV and human rights implications, National Human Rights Commission Of Korea, 17-27.
  28. Secured by Design (2019). Homes 2019, Police Crime Prevention Initiative, 14-26. Retrieved January 30, 2021 from
  29. Seong, G. (2011). CPTED design of apartment housing, Architectural Research, 55(8), 21-24.
  30. Yu, K., & Jin, H. (2012). A study on guidelines for crime prevention through environmental design. AURI, 7, 88-89.
  31. Yu, K., & Cho, Y. (2014). A study on the development of the CPTED(Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) Manual. AURI, 5, 31.