Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Restaurants: An Empirical Study from Pakistan

  • BHUTTO, Sana Arz (Business Administration Department, Iqra University) ;
  • JAMAL, Yasir (Business Administration Department, Mohammed Ali Jinnah University) ;
  • RAFIQ, Asim (Faculty of Management Sciences, Hamdard Institute of Management Sciences, Hamdard University) ;
  • NISA, Noor Un (Business Administration Department, Iqra University) ;
  • SAIFULLAH, Saifullah (Faculty of Management Sciences, Hamdard Institute of Management Sciences, Hamdard University) ;
  • HUSSAIN, Munir (Department of Entrepreneurship, Institute of Business Management)
  • Received : 2021.07.15
  • Accepted : 2021.10.05
  • Published : 2021.11.30


The aim of this study is to investigate the role of employee engagement as a mediator between the High-Performance Work System and the Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Service-Oriented OCB). Furthermore, work-life balance as a moderator, the impact Service-Oriented OCB on customer satisfaction will be investigated. This study employs a quantitative methodology for which questionnaires were distributed to sixty restaurants in Karachi, and a sample of 418 responses was collected for structural equation modeling analysis. Smart PLS software was used to analyze the structure model. The results show that HPWS has a positive impact on Service-Oriented OCB. It is assumed that the role of work engagement as a mediator between HPWS and Service-Oriented OCB is significant. This study found that Service-Oriented OCB has a positive impact on customer satisfaction. Work-life balance was also found to have a moderating influence. The findings confirmed the black box mechanism and the HPWS procedures in restaurants. This study suggests implementing effective HPWS practices to influence employees' work engagement, which leads to Service-Oriented OCB and employees being able to optimize their performance to influence customer satisfaction. The study contributes to the existing body of knowledge in human resource management.


1. Introduction

During the last three decades, a significant number of studies in the Human Resource Management (HRM) discipline have focused on human resource (HR) practices and organizational performance, with the goal of identifying the most effective HRM practices that contribute to positive organizational performance. In this realm, High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS) emerges as a central concept that refers to a set of interrelated systems of HR practices considered to enhance employees’ skills, motivation, engagement, dedication, and productivity. It is worth noting that businesses must optimize organizational performance by motivating employees to have a positive attitude toward their jobs and improve their performance. A review of HRM literature suggests that the manufacturing sector has been the subject of the majority of studies examining the influence of HPWS on employee productivity and organizational performance. However, given the significant contribution of the service industry to “Gross Domestic Product” (GDP), which accounts for 60% of GDP in most countries, HRM researchers argue that attention should be focused on the service sector. This need for the shift is further emphasized by referring to the fact that the service sector tremendously differs from the manufacturing sector in its characteristics, for example, perishability of services, difficulty in measuring the service quality due to intangibility, and the direct involvement of customers via social media (Bichler et al., 2020). Therefore, it is argued that the findings of manufacturing studies cannot be extended and generalized to the service sector.

As a result, there has been a substantial body of empirical study concentrating on the service industry during the previous decade. However, the majority of the studies were conducted in Western culture. There have been few studies that look at HRM methods and their effects on employee attitudes and performance in the service sector in Pakistan. Furthermore, despite the importance of the Pakistani fast food industry in terms of economic significance, the number of studies focusing on this industry is limited.

Fast food is Pakistan’s second-largest industry, and it ranks eighth globally (Naru & Rehman, 2020). Fast food restaurants constitute a significant part of the retail business of Pakistan (Government of Pakistan, 2017). It represents 27% of Pakistan’s value-added production and 16% of the total employment in the manufacturing sector with an estimated 180 million customers. The industry is rapidly expanding each year “with a pace of twenty percent”. However, more recent studies indicate high employee turnover in Pakistan’s fast food industry. Pakistan’s food industry employees tend to switch jobs more quickly because of emotional exhaustion, work environment, low pay, and other factors. The significant employee turnover in such a service-oriented company, where people play such an important role, is a concern for its future success, that is, it may pose a risk to its future success. Facts such as the industry’s rapid growth and increased consumer demand, on the one hand, and high employee turnover, on the other, necessitate a scientific investigation into high-performance human resource practices that can aid in retaining employees and improving their motivation, job commitment, engagement, and productivity in Pakistan’s fast-food industry (Cross, 2017).

This study significantly contributes to the existing literature on the relationship between HPWS and organizational performance in several ways. First, this is one of the initial studies which examine employee’s work-life balance as a moderating process that impacts the relationship between HPWS and service-oriented OCB. Second, as stated earlier, most of the studies on HPWS have been conducted in the West, calling for a need to conduct similar studies in the South Asian context including Pakistan. Third, sufficient studies are available on the link between HPWS and work engagement but this study presents a unique contribution by extending this relation with service-oriented OCB and customer satisfaction (Nadeem et al., 2019). In Pakistan’s fast-food sector, this present study empirically investigates the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior (service-oriented OCB) of employees in the fast food industry of Pakistan by exploring the mediating role of employees’ work engagement and the moderating effect of work-life balance of employees in this relationship. Further, the impact of the service-oriented OCB on customer satisfaction is examined to determine the extended effects of HPWS on organizational performance.

2. Literature Review and Hypotheses Development

The dynamic approaches of HPWS and its encouraging influence on the behavior and attitudes of the employees is highlighted across the literature of HRM by numerous models and theories (e.g. social exchange). The current model is grounded on a model namely the social exchange theory (Blau, 1964); these theories are rooted in the norm of reciprocity. This idea suggests that when one receives benefits from others, one positively responds by providing some kind of favor to them in return. In an organization, when the employees see and feel that their management values them, rewards them by acknowledging their efforts for the organization, and cares about their wellbeing, the employees reciprocate by showing a high level of dedication and affective commitment towards their organization. They are highly engaged in their work and willing to go beyond their job (Bruck & Garthwaite, 2020) and customer satisfaction is attained consequently. The present study analyses the impact of HPWS on the OCB by drawing on the social exchange theory. Figure 1 displays the conceptual framework and identifies the corresponding hypothesis.

OTGHEU_2021_v8n11_67_f0001.png 이미지

Figure 1: Theoretical Framework

2.1. High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS) and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Service-Oriented OCB)

Throughout HRM literature, the term ‘High- performance work system (HPWS)’ has been defined differently. It is an umbrella term for a bundle of HR practices and processes devised to maximize employees’ knowledge, skills, motivation, and engagement. The first studies of HPWS were developed in the year 1995. The concept models which were developed in past were simple (Delery & Doty, 1996). Recent studies emerged by considering the limitation of the earlier studies which emphasized processes that operate as a key mechanism behind the relationship which was direct and is referred to as the black box (Kloutsiniotis & Mihail, 2020). Often referred to as the ‘black box’, the intervening or intermediary linkages that exist between the input of best practice HRM and the subsequent output of good firm performance have, to date, not been clearly established. The “black box” refers to the unclear processes that occur when inputs are converted into useful output. The “black box” is also described as “gap”, “largely unexplained facet”, or “remaining void”, in terms of explaining the processes and mechanisms by which the HRM-performance impact operates. Kloutsiniotis and Mihail (2020) explained the concept of a black box, established the positive impact of HPWS on employees’ behavior and attitude which ultimately drives Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB).

According to Organ (1988, p. 4) OCB is defined as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization”. He identified five dimensions of citizenship behavior; however, later researchers contextualized this phenomenon to the different types of organizations. Scholars argued that depending on the nature of the organization, some dimensions of OCB become more suitable in contrast to others. Consequently, considering the structure and nature of service organizations, Bettencourt and Brown (1997) coined the term ‘service-oriented OCB’. They describe it as an extra-role behavior the employees display in providing services to the customer that go beyond their formal job roles. Enhanced OCBs are generally considered to improve employees’ productivity and increase customer satisfaction.

The studies show that the implementation of HPWS is interpreted by employees as justice (for example) through the practices of recruitment and selection, acknowledgment, practices of performance management, and authorization (for example, through personnel autonomy and decision practices of participation). These practices reflect that the management is dedicated to the welfare of the employees (Kloutsiniotis & Mihail, 2018). Thus, the employees in return voluntarily display extra-role behavior and discretionary efforts to satisfy customers. So far, researchers have emphasized the importance of HPWS deployment in generating a supportive environment that enables OCB (Singh et al., 2020). A significant number of researchers have demonstrated the positive relationship between HPWS and OCBs in general and service-oriented OCBs, in particular. However, despite the high significance of HPWS and service-oriented OCB in the fast-food industry, the literature examining the relationship between HPWS and service-oriented OCB in the fast-food industry, particularly in the Pakistani context is scant. Thus, the present study aims at adding to the existing literature on “HPWS–Service-Oriented OCB” by examining the relationship between HPWS and service-oriented OCB in the fast-food industry. Hence, our first proposed hypothesis is as follows:

H1: HPWS perception of fast-food restaurant employees is positively related to Service-Oriented OCB.

2.2. High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS) and Work Engagement

When employees associate themselves with the job role to give their best performance, they are engaged physically, emotionally, and cognitively (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Olugbade and Karatepe (2019) claimed that employee engagement is a psychological condition that intrinsically motivates employees and increases their involvement which makes employees become more physically and cognitively involved in their work. Effective managerial practices have a positive impact on employee’s work engagement. Additionally, it also increases satisfaction with work because when the employees are given the freedom to make decisions then their engagement also increases (Nguyen et al., 2020). Empirical studies show that employee engagement is now crucial for every industry where employees face a stressful environment that results in service delays, ultimately leading to communication gaps due to workload (Saleem et al., 2020).

H2: High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS) have a positive relationship with work engagement.

2.3. Work Engagement Has a Positive Relationship with Service-Oriented OCB

Many organizations recognize the important role of employees’ work engagement in creating effective performance by their employees. Employee involvement helps to increase employee loyalty and participation while also motivating them to give excellent service (Kim & Gatling, 2019). Employee engagement depends on fair human resource practices (Pham, 2021). Thus high performance work systems assist managers in achieving this goal by promoting employee well-being, which encourages employees to engage in extra-role behavior. According to a study by Aboramadan and Dahleez (2020), the research findings confirmed the positive effect of employee engagement on employee commitment and organizational citizenship behavior.

H3: Work Engagement has a positive relationship with Service-Oriented OCB.

2.4. Mediating Role of Work Engagement in the Relationship between the HPWS and Services Oriented OCB

Engagement in work is viewed as an optimistic work associated mind state of an employee that is categorized by dedication, absorption, and vigor (Ghlichlee & Bayat, 2021). Empirical research has acknowledged the HPWS’s positive effect on the work engagement of personnel (Nadeem et al., 2019). The conditions created by HPWS will motivate employees, making them more engaged. Employees will demonstrate a better level of work engagement and job satisfaction as a result of these ongoing positive mutual interactions. HPWS increases the engagement in the work of the employees which results in a behavioral outcome that is performed beyond the job duties (Luu, 2019). Hence, this results in seeking solutions to their problems which occur every day, and supporting their fellows when they face a complaint by the customers (Aryee et al., 2016). There are very few studies that have focused on examining service oriented OCB antecedents in the fast-food industry. The findings of research by Nadeem et al. (2019) confirmed that Pakistan service organizations must implement HPWS to increase the service-oriented OCB and work engagement. Based on the earlier discussion, we propose the following hypothesis:

H4: Work engagement mediates the relationship between HPWS and Service-Oriented OCB.

2.5. Service-Oriented OCB and Customer Satisfaction

The future behavior of a customer depends on customer satisfaction (Torlak et al., 2019). It is the positive outcome of service quality received and the expectations of a customer. According to researchers, the satisfaction of customer antecedents is observed quality, disconfirmation, and expectations (Anderson & Sullivan, 1993), customer relationships, and handling of conflict (Budur, 2018). Satisfaction results in revisit behaviors, future repurchases, positive endorsements, and loyalty (Torlak et al., 2019; Budur et al., 2019; Poturak & Softic, 2019; Poturak & Turkyilmaz, 2018). Murad and Ali (2015) documented about Pakistani fast-food restaurants that customer satisfaction is significantly linked with service quality. Many researchers have analyzed the impact of service-oriented OCB on customer satisfaction (Bilgin et al., 2015; Palouzian & Hosseini, 2016). According to Palouzian and Hosseini (2016), customer satisfaction generates loyal customers. If organizations want to gain more loyal customers, they must first train managers to focus on the organization’s internal effectiveness, which supports employee performance and, in turn, increases employee citizenship behavior. Customer satisfaction determines a customer’s future behavior (Budur, 2018). A study by Murad and Ali (2015) of Pakistani fast food restaurants confirmed the significance of service quality on customer satisfaction. A study was conducted on the employees of Pizza hut in Pakistan, and results showed that employee loyalty has a significant impact on customer satisfaction (Gardezi, 2015). Based on the earlier discussion, we propose the following hypothesis:

H5: Service-oriented OCB has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction.

2.6. Work-Life Balance (WLB) as a Moderator

The concept of work-life balance of an employee is divided into two parts; work and life. In which the life part is mostly affected. There is a need to develop policies and adopt practices in the workplace that recognize the employees’ need for a work-life balance. According to Dhamija et al. (2019), in the service industry, the quality of work-life creates job satisfaction and thus has a direct impact on employees’ job performance. The emotional regulations and emotions that make up the inseparable work-life are lauded by practitioners and scholars of organizational behavior literature, but it is observed that human resource management is lagging in addressing the emotional dimensions of the work-life to keep employees motivated (Ashkanasy et al., 2017). In the fast-food industry because of long working hours, work-life balance is a key concern (Naru & Rehman, 2020). Naru and Rehman (2020) investigated the impact of work overload on employee performance in the fast-food industry of Pakistan. The results showed that when employees are overburdened with work then they face stress and because of this, it affects not only their work but also their life. Based on the earlier discussion, we propose the following hypothesis:

H6: Work-Life Balance moderates the relationship between HPWS and Service-oriented OCB.

The theoretical framework of this study is displayed in Figure 1.

3. Methodology

3.1. Scale and Measurement

This research aims to investigate how HPWS influences OCB and the impact of OCB on customer satisfaction in the context of the fast-food industry of Karachi (Pakistan). The mediating effect of work engagement on the impact of HPWS on OCB is investigated. The moderating effect of work-life balance is also investigated.

For this purpose, a questionnaire was used, which entails two sections. In the first section, respondents were asked for demographic details, while the second section consists of scaling questions, used to measure the conceptual frame construct. A 5-level Likert scale was used for data collection. Likert scale is a type of psychometric response scale in which responders specify their level of agreement to a statement typically in five points: (1) Strongly disagree; (2) Disagree; (3) Neither agree nor disagree; (4) Agree; (5) Strongly agree.

The questionnaire was adapted from previous research, for example, customer satisfaction (Yildiz & Amin, 2020), family-based work-life balance (Matthews & Barnes- Farrell, 2010), and remaining constructs from Kloutsiniotis and Mihail (2020), and selected items concerning the fast-food industry were modified. The two key constructs HPWS and service-oriented OCB are measured with a repeated measured indicators approach (Hair et al., 2017). Repeated indicator approach is depicted when the second order construct, is directly assessed by the corresponding first-order constructs and in turn, the first-order constructs are directly estimated by its underlying formative measures. The questionnaire was translated from English to Urdu and reviewed by an expert, and the final Urdu version was re-translated to English with the help of an expert.

3.2. Sampling and Data Collection

Data was collected from first-line employees and customers using intercept sampling. According to Hair et al. (2017), a sample size of 300 is good for PLS to conclude results. In this study, data was collected from 60 restaurants in Karachi. The customer satisfaction construct was measured on a customer base. The questionnaires were distributed among 500 employees and customers and 418 responses were selected for further analysis.

3.3. Data Analysis

The model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM), because of its ability to estimate several connected dependent relationships, as in our model. Smart PLS software was used to analyze the structural model. Hair et al. (2017) suggested that PLS is a powerful technique for regression and confirmatory factor analysis. In this study, the data was analyzed with Smart PLS software version 3.3.3.

4. Results

4.1. Measurement Model

The measurement model is tested by calculating the conceptual model using a statistical test. The construct reliability and validity, collinearity statistics, model fit, discriminant, and convergent validity, and factor loading were the primary focus of the test. Statistical results meet all the minimum criteria of threshold values. Table 1 and Figure 2 show that the factor loading values of all items are greater than 0.7 and the AVE value is also greater than 0.05. So, all items meet threshold values (Tabachnick et al., 2007). This indicates that there is no issue of convergent validity. The conceptual model is a reflective formative first-order construct, for which the HPWS do not need to show their factor loading. Meanwhile, the service-oriented OCB is reflectively measured, for which the path coefficients of the three dimensions of OCB are taken into account (Matthews et al., 2018).

Table 1: Reliability Analysis

OTGHEU_2021_v8n11_67_t0001.png 이미지

OTGHEU_2021_v8n11_67_f0002.png 이미지

Figure 2: Measurement Model Assessment

The construct’s discriminant reliability was evaluated by using Fornell and Larcker criteria. Table 2 shows that the all-diagonal values (the square root of AVE) are greater than the other values (correlations) of the respective rows and columns. With higher factor loading, the items present more to their parents’ constructs in the cross-loading column (Hair et al., 2017). This means that there is no problem with discriminant validity. The moderating impact, HPWS, and OCB were not shown in table 2 since they are based on repeated measurable indications.

Table 2: Fornell-Larcker Criteria

OTGHEU_2021_v8n11_67_t0002.png 이미지

4.2. Structural Model

Table 3 and Figure 3 depict the association between several variables. When the “t” value is larger than 1.96 and the “P” value is less than 0.05, it is proposed that the independent construct has a significant influence on the dependent variable (Hair et al., 2017). All constructs are positively and significantly related, as indicated in the table below. The moderating impact, as shown in Figure 4, has a minimum “t” value of 2.652, and HPWS to work engagement has a higher “t” value of 16.853, indicating that all constructs are within acceptable critical regions. The four primary direct impacts, as well as the mediating and moderating effects, are well established.

Table 3: Path Model

OTGHEU_2021_v8n11_67_t0003.png 이미지

Note: ***p-value are significant at 0.05 level.

OTGHEU_2021_v8n11_67_f0003.png 이미지

Figure 3: Structural Model Assessment

5. Discussion

This study has made a significant contribution to the practice of human resource management. From a theoretical point of view, the results of the study support the previous work by Kloutsiniotis and Mihail (2020) and confirm the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and service-oriented OCB. Further, the mediation role of employee engagement on the impact of service-oriented OCB on customer satisfaction is also empirically proved to be valid, while work-life balance act as a moderator between the relationship of HPWS and service-oriented OCB. These results are consistent with the findings of Dhamija et al. (2019). This study contributes to a better knowledge of the examined relationships in Pakistan’s fast-food industry. By investigating the mechanism of how practices and policies of human resource management function, this research has improved understanding of the black box mechanism and contributed to the need for future studies in the Pakistani fast-food industry.

These findings of the study shed light on the process of the black box by unfolding the mechanism by which the high performance work systems affect the service-oriented OCB. The ‘black box’, the intervening or intermediary linkages that exist between the input of best practice HRM and the subsequent output of good firm performance have, to date, not been clearly established. The research findings validate the relationships, especially when implementing HPWS fairly because employees create an extra-role behavior that assists them in serving customers proficiently (Singh et al., 2020). This study shows that when a lot of effort is put into finding the appropriate candidate (employee), a restaurant can take advantage of that employee’s long-term potential. Workers in customer interaction or front-line jobs will benefit from extensive training programs, which will increase promotion opportunities within the organization, which in turn ensures service-oriented OCB.

Furthermore, fair decision-making and rewards (HR practices) given to the employees strengthen their service oriented OCB. Because of the busy nature of jobs in the fast-food business, this study suggests that job designs are especially important when up-to-date job descriptions are employed. The findings of this study show that HPWS has a chain effect on service-oriented OCB, with employee engagement acting as a mediator between the two in Pakistan’s fast-food industry. These results are aligned with Kloutsiniotis and Mihail (2020), who demonstrated the valuable contribution of HPWS towards the development of a justice and service climate, which in turn influence positively employees’ work engagement. As a consequence, employees respond by exhibiting extra-role behaviors and by engaging in service-oriented OCB. Overall, the findings clarify the mechanism behind the HPWS process, known as the “black-box”, and valuable knowledge for professionals practicing Human Resource Management (HRM).

This study indicated that work engagement helps employees in gaining resilience which makes them feel strong and mentally vigorous which helps them in delivering terrific performance. The fast-food industry is a hectic place where managers have to keep on initiating and deploying the most effective mix of HPWS to keep their employees engaged. The results of this study confirm that HPWS encompasses effective recruitment and selection, training and development, employment security, performance management, decision making, rewards and benefits, and job design which is also supported by a previous study by Kloutsiniotis and Mihail (2020).

The findings of this research support the notion that work-life balance influences the performance of employees in the fast-food industry of Pakistan. This result aligns with the findings of Ashkanasy et al. (2017). According to this study, striking a balance between work and life helps people increase their focus on work, which motivates them to give their best effort. This research has empirically provided evidence from the fast-food industry in Pakistan that the frontline employees are creating more customer satisfaction through their extra-role behavior-driven due to the implementation of effective HPWS. The positive findings suggested that service-oriented OCB is vital in developing customer satisfaction. Service-oriented OCB behavior and service quality, relate positively to customer satisfaction.

Moreover, this study suggests that employees must follow up on customer requests and problems promptly for customer satisfaction. Additionally, this study suggests that employee participation can be endorsed by seeking ideas from employees for customer promotions. Employee communications are highly appreciable especially when employees make constructive suggestions for service improvement and frequently present their creative solutions to customer problems. This study indicates that employees exhibit loyalty to their company when employees observe fair practices which makes employees perceive positively about their companies and generate favorable goodwill of the restaurant as well. Positive perception on part of the employees will force them actively promote the firm’s products and services in their social circle. There are few studies in this subject that focus on the adoption of HPWS in the fast-food industry, with only a few addressing the black box in Pakistan’s fast-food industry. Furthermore, rather than looking at the HPWS as a single unit, this study looked at it as a set of practices.

6. Conclusion

This study fills in the gaps by demonstrating that successful HPWS have a major impact on service-oriented OCB when staff engagement is boosted through proper HPWS implementation. Service-oriented OCB also boosts customer satisfaction because when employees engage in extra-role behavior, they tend to go above and beyond their responsibilities, meeting customers’ demands and increasing customer satisfaction. The highly demanding working environment of Pakistan’s fast-food industry may cause an unbalance in the lives of employees, affecting their performance (Naru & Rehman, 2020). Therefore, it is suggested that effective HPWS should be implemented to achieve employee engagement, service-oriented OCB, and ultimately customer satisfaction.

The findings of this research paper have highlighted the positive significance of HPWS on service-oriented OCB while explaining employee engagement as a mediator between the relationship. This finding provides empirical support to Singh et al. (2020) who indicated that HPWS influences OCB. Most of the dimensions of HPWS and service-oriented OCB were found to be positively associated. The findings reported a broad view of the relationship between HPWS and OCB in the Indian manufacturing context. The study offered the practical insights that HPWS is a universally accepted framework and that organizations should focus on the effective implementation of HPWS. In particular, our study findings have highlighted the importance of employee engagement on service-oriented OCB, and previous research related to this topic is limited. The findings also correspond with the research by Luu (2019) who demonstrated the role of employee work engagement in mediating the relationships between service-oriented HPWS and service-oriented in role performance as well as service-oriented OCB. Hence, our study proclaims that employee participation, loyalty, and service delivery increase when employees perceive that their efforts are rewarded accordingly. In the light of established theories, the findings provide several theoretical insights. For example, Murad and Ali (2015) stated that service-oriented OCB is an extra role that is needed by organizations and it cannot be forced on employees but can only be developed through fair and effective HPWS. The results of our study underline the impact of service-oriented OCB on customer satisfaction and confirm this to findings of Palouzian and Hosseini (2016). The paper renders an important contribution in understanding that the fast-food industry employees in Pakistan suffer from workload because of the demanding nature of the industry and thus employees’ wellbeing is affected, therefore, employees’ well-being should be taken care of by implementing appropriate HPWS.

The managerial implications of this study confirm that the managers must make employee-friendly work-life policies that will help the managers in creating a work life balance (Naru & Rehman, 2020). According to a study by Olugbade and Karatepe (2019), employees’ emotional needs must be supervised by the managers by giving the freedom to employees to make their own schedules. Flexible work schedules and psychological empowerment will increase employee engagement since employees will not feel stressed because of rigid schedules which adversely affect their work and life. Managers should reward their employees according to their performance and provide benefits to employees to increase service-oriented OCB. Job security must be provided by the managers to retain talented employees because these employees are human capital to the company. Fairness must be observed while taking rewards and promotion-related decisions. This study provides a guideline to managers and supervisors who handle the day- to-day matters of the employees in the fast-food industry of Pakistan. It will help them to make effective policies that are matched with employee’s work and life requirements. The role of managers in developing service-oriented OCB is crucial in the service industry, and hence the findings of this study can be applied to other service industries where employees are having problems managing their work-life and have weak engagement in their jobs.

Like other studies, this research is also not free from limitations but these limitations may render innovative ideas for future research. The first limitation of this study is that it is a cross-sectional study, which means that causality issues were not addressed. Second, this study focused on the frontline employees only who are customer service providers. Generally, organizations use different practices using employee groups (Kloutsiniotis & Mihail, 2020). Third, this study is limited to the only fast-food industry of Pakistan. Thus, this study has opened up new research avenues for applying the same model to diverse industries to better generalize the findings.


  1. Aboramadan, M., & Dahleez, K. A. (2020). Leadership styles and employees' work outcomes in nonprofit organizations: The role of work engagement. Journal of Management Development, 39, 869-893.
  2. Anderson, E. W., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms. Marketing Science, 12, 125-143.
  3. Aryee, S., Walumbwa, F. O., Gachunga, H., & Hartnell, C. A. (2016). Workplace family resources and service performance: The mediating role of work engagement. Africa Journal of Management, 2, 138-165.
  4. Ashkanasy, N. M., Troth, A. C., Lawrence, S. A., & Jordan, P. J. (2017). Emotions and emotional regulation in HRM: A multilevel perspective. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 35, 1-52.
  5. Bettencourt, L. A., & Brown, S. W. (1997). Contract employees: Relationships among workplace fairness, job satisfaction, and prosocial service behaviors. Journal of Retailing, 73, 39-61.
  6. Bichler, B. F., Pikkemaat, B., & Peters, M. (2020). Exploring the role of service quality, atmosphere, and food for revisits in restaurants by using an e-mystery guest approach. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 61, 99-131.
  7. Bilgin, N., Kuzey, C., Torlak, G., & Uyar, A. (2015). An investigation of antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior in the Turkish hospitality industry: A structural equation approach. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9, 200-222.
  8. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley & Sons.
  9. Bruck, A. E., & Garthwaite, K. (2020). "We'll go back to a system you really do not like!" Organizational norms and structural violence in a British foodbank. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 10(2), 147-161.
  10. Budur, T. (2018). Analytic hierarchy process to evaluate a corporate image, trust, and switching cost of GSM operators: A case of Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5, 241-250.
  11. Budur, T., Faraj, K. M., & Karim, L. A. (2019). The benchmarking operations strategies via hybrid model: A case study of Cafe-Restaurant Sector. Amazonia Investiga, 8, 842-854.
  12. Cross, D. D. (2017). Employee retention strategies in the fast food industry. Doctoral dissertation, Walden University.
  13. Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 802-835.
  14. Dhamija, P., Gupta, S., & Bag, S. (2019). Measuring job satisfaction: The use of quality of work-life factors. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 26, 871-892.
  15. Gardezi, N. (2015). A case study on Pizza Hut Pakistan. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3(2), 265-274.
  16. Ghlichlee, B., & Bayat, F. (2021). Frontline employees' engagement and business performance: The mediating role of customer-oriented behaviors. Management Research Review, 44, 290-317.
  17. Government of Pakistan. (2017). Economic survey of Pakistan 2016-17.
  18. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
  19. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  20. Kim, J., & Gatling, A. (2019). Impact of employees' job, organizational and technology fit on engagement and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 31(11), 88-106.
  21. Kloutsiniotis, P. V., & Mihail, D. M. (2018). The link between perceived high-performance work practices, employee attitudes, and service quality. Employee Relations, 40(5), 801-821.
  22. Kloutsiniotis, P. V., & Mihail, D. M. (2020). The effects of high-performance work systems in employees' service-oriented OCB. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 90, 102610.
  23. Luu, T. T. (2019). Service-oriented high-performance work systems and service-oriented behaviors in public organizations: The mediating role of work engagement. Public Management Review, 21, 789-816.
  24. Matthews, L., Hair, J., Matthews, R., & Enterprises, R. (2018). PLS-SEM: The holy grail for advanced analysis. The Marketing Management Journal, 28(1), 1-13. http://www.mmaglobal. org/publications/MMJ/MMJ-Issues/2018-Spring/MMJ-2018-Vol28-Issue1-Matthews-Hair-Matthews-pp1-13.pdf
  25. Matthews, R. A., & Barnes-Farrell, J. L. (2010). Development and initial evaluation of an enhanced measure of boundary flexibility for the work and family domains. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 330-346.
  26. Murad, S., & Ali, M. (2015). Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in the restaurant industry. Singaporean Journal of Business Economics and Management Studies, 4(6), 71-81.
  27. Nadeem, K., Riaz, A., & Danish, R. Q. (2019). Influence of high-performance work system on employee service performance and OCB: The mediating role of resilience. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9, 13.
  28. Naru, A. S., & Rehman, A. (2020). Impact of job insecurity and work overload on employee performance with the mediating role of employee stress: A case of Pakistan's fast-food industry. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 10, 305.
  29. Nguyen, D. T, Ha, V. D., & Dang, T. T. N. (2020). The impact of human resource management activities on the compatibility and work results. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(9), 621-629.
  30. Olugbade, O. A., & Karatepe, O. M. (2019). Stressors, work engagement and their effects on hotel employee outcomes. The Service Industries Journal, 39, 279-298.
  31. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.
  32. Paais, M. & Pattiruhu, J.R. (2020). Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(8), 577-588.
  33. Palouzian, K., & Hosseini, M. (2016). Review the effect of internal branding on brand performance in shopping centers in Tehran. Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, 13, 299-306.
  34. Pham, T.N.M. (2021). The relationship between human resource management practices, work engagement and employee behavior: A case study in Vietnam. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 8(4), 1003-1012.
  35. Poturak, M., & Softic, S. (2019). Influence of social media content on consumer purchase intention: Mediation effect of brand equity. Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics, 12, 17-43.
  36. Poturak, M., & Turkyilmaz, M. (2018). The impact of eWOM in social media on consumer purchase decisions: A comparative study between Romanian and Bosnian consumers. Management and Economic Review, 3, 138-160.
  37. Saleem, Z., Shenbei, Z., & Hanif, A. M. (2020). Workplace violence and employee engagement: the mediating role of work environment and organizational culture. SAGE Open, 10(2), 111-129.
  38. Singh, J. P., Chand, P. K., Mittal, A., & Aggarwal, A. (2020). High-performance work system and organizational citizenship behavior on the shop floor. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 27, 1369-1398.
  39. Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Ullman, J. B. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (Vol. 5). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  40. Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2019). Impact of operations management strategies on customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions at cafe-restaurants. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 69, 1903-1924.
  41. Yildiz, Y., & Amin, H. H. H. (2020). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on customer satisfaction. Eurasian Journal of Management & Social Sciences, 1, 17-35.