Does Local Government Affect Community Satisfaction of the Younger Generation in Rural Areas? The Case of Jeonbuk, South Korea

  • Received : 2021.06.25
  • Accepted : 2021.08.23
  • Published : 2021.08.31


This study examines the relationship between public service satisfaction, trust in local government, and community satisfaction. Previous studies on community satisfaction have insufficiently dealt with public services or trust in local government and have not fully conducted an integrated analysis. To close these knowledge gaps, this study includes public service satisfaction that was constructed with the subcomponents economic support, education, and public safety and trust in local government as factors affecting community satisfaction. Moreover, this study verified the mediating effect of trust in local government between public service satisfaction and community satisfaction. Online surveys were carried out with 980 residents in Jeonbuk, Korea, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed. The results indicated that public service satisfaction affected community satisfaction directly or indirectly. In particular, the satisfaction with public safety influenced community satisfaction both directly and indirectly. In addition, trust in local government had a mediating effect between all sub-components of public service satisfaction and community satisfaction. Today, regional disparity between urban and rural areas in developing countries is widening. As a result, residents in rural areas are gradually moving to urban areas. Therefore, rural areas need to increase the community satisfaction of their residents. In this regard, this study suggests important policy implications for community satisfaction enhancement.



  1. Ahn, A. R., Im, B.Y., & Ma, K. R. (2019). A study on the characteristics of migration to and from the small and medium sized city. Korea Real Estate Society, 37(2), 21-38.
  2. Anderson, J. C., & Narus, J. A. (1990). A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships. Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 90-102.
  3. Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  4. Baum, S., Arthurson, K., & Rickson, K. (2010). Happy people in mixed-up places: The association between the degree and type of local socioeconomic mix and expressions of neighbourhood satisfaction. Urban Studies, 47(3), 467-485.
  5. Bok, D. (2010). The politics of happiness: What government can learn from the new research on well-being. Princeton University Press.
  6. Brown, T. (2007). Coercion versus choice: Citizen evaluations of public service quality across methods of consumption. Public Administration Review, 67(3), 559-572.
  7. Case, A., & Deaton, A. (2015). Suicide, age, and well-being: An empirical investigation. In D. A.Wise (Ed.) Insights in the Economics of Aging (pp. 307-334). University of Chicago Press), 307-334.
  8. Cheon, S. H., Lee, Y. S., Lim, L. J., & Park, S. J. (2014). Impacts of housing purchase and rental price changes on population migration. Journal of Korea Planning Association, 49(5), 151-172.
  9. Christensen, T., & Laegried, P. (2005). Trust in government: The relative importance of service satisfaction, political factors, and demography. Public Performance & Management Review, 28(4), 487-511.
  10. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95-S120.
  11. De Guzman, M. R. T., Kim, S., Taylor, S., & Padasas, I. (2020). Rural communities as a context for entrepreneurship: Exploring perceptions of youth and business owners. Journal of Rural Studies, 80, 45-52.
  12. Djebuarni, R., & Al-Abed, A. (2000). Satisfaction level with neighbourhood in low income public housing in Yemen. Property Management, 18, 230-242.
  13. Dolan, E., Cullen, S., McGoldrick, A., & Warrington, G. D. (2013). The impact of making weight on physiological and cognitive processes in elite jockeys. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23(4), 399-408.
  14. Filkins, R., Allen, J. C., & Cordes, S. (2000). Predicting community satisfaction among rural residents: An integrative model. Rural Sociology, 65(1), 72-86.
  15. Gazzeh, K., & Abubakar, I. R. (2018). Regional disparity in access to basic public services in Saudi Arabia: A sustainability challenge. Utilities Policy, 52, 70-80.
  16. Grzeskowiak, S., Sirgy, M. J., & Widgery, R. (2003). Residents' satisfaction with community services: Predictors and outcomes. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 33(1100-2016-89857).
  17. Hannascott, L. (2016). Individual and contextual socioeconomic status and community satisfaction. Urban Studies, 53(8), 1727-1744.
  18. Hetherington, M. J. (2005). Why trust matters: Declining political trust and demise of American liberalism. Princeton University Press.
  19. Ho, A., & Coates, P. (2004). Citizen-initiated performance assessment: The initial Iowa experience. Public Performance & Management Review, 27(3), 29-50.
  20. Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Harvard University Press.
  21. Huimin, G., Lianhua, C., Shugang, L., & Haifei, L. (2020). Regional risk assessment methods in relation to urban public safety. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 143, 361-366.
  22. Im, T., & Lee, S. J. (2012). Does management performance impact citizen satisfaction? American Review of Public Administration, 42(4), 419-436.
  23. Kadar, C., Maculan, R., & Feuerriegel, S. (2019). Public decision support for low population density areas: An imbalance-aware hyper-ensemble for spatiotemporal crime prediction. Decision Support Systems, 119, 107-117.
  24. Kang, H. J. (2018). The relationship between the expectancy disconfirmation for the local government service and residents' satisfaction: Focusing on the moderating effect of trust in government. Korea Public Administration Review, 52(2), 67-99.
  25. Kelly, J. M., & Swindell, D. (2002). A multiple-indicator approach to municipal service evaluation: Correlating performance measurement and citizen satisfaction across jurisdictions. Public Administration Review, 62(5), 610-621.
  26. Ko, M. C. (2013). The effects of citizen satisfaction on community quality of life: The evidence from the city of Sioux Falls City in U. S. The Korean Governance Review, 20(2), 243-247.
  27. Kwon, O. K., Kang, E. T., & Ma, K. R. (2019). A study on the impact of the urban decline on the subjective well-being of residents. Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association, 35(2), 33-47.
  28. Lawrence, R. Z. (1997). Is it really the economy, stupid? In J. S. J. Nye, P. D. Zelikow, & D. C. King (Eds.), Why people don't trust government (pp. 111-132). Harvard University Press.
  29. Lee, H. S., & Lim, J. H. (2017). SPSS 24 Manual. JypHyunJae Publishing Co.
  30. Lee, H. C., Park, H. B., & Jung, W. I. (2004). An analysis on the factors to affect the settlement consciousness of in habitants. The Korean Association for Policy Studies, 13, 147-167.
  31. Lee, I. H., Jung, S. W., Lee, J. W., & Macdonald, E. (2019). Street crime prediction model based on the physical characteristics of a streetscape: Analysis of streets in lowrise housing areas in South Korea. Urban Analytics and City Science, 46(8), 862-879.
  32. Ma, K. R. (2017). The hit list of local cities. Kaemagowon Publishing Co.
  33. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychol Methods, 7(1), 83-104.
  34. Mohan, J., & Twigg, L. (2007). Sense of place, quality of life and local socioeconomic context: Evidence from the survey of English housing, 2002/03. Urban Studies, 44(10), 2029-2045.
  35. Miller, A.H. (1974). Political issues and trust in government: 1964-1970. The American Political Science Review, 68(3), 951-972.
  36. Mohan, J., & Twigg, L. (2007). Sense of place, quality of life and local socioeconomic context: Evidence from the survey of English housing, 2002/03. Urban Studies, 44(10), 2029-2045.
  37. OECD. (2020). OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance 2020. OECD Publishing.
  38. Ozkan, D. G., & Yilmaz, S. (2019). The effects of physical and social attributes of place on place attachment: A case study on Trabzon urban squares. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 13(1), 133-150.
  39. Park, J. H. (2014). Government's information-providing on trust in government and service satisfaction: Seoul metropolitan case. The Korean Journal of Local Government Studies. 18(1), 291-313.
  40. Petrovsky, N., Mok, J. Y., & Leon-Cazares, F. (2017). Citizen expectations and satisfaction in a young democracy: A test of the expectancy-disconfirmation model. Public Administration Review, 77(3), 395-407.
  41. Prati, G., Cicognani, E., & Albanesi, C. (2018). The influence of school sense of community on students' wellbeing: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Community Psychology, 46, 917-924.
  42. Putnam, R. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic tradition in modern Italy. Princeton University Press.
  43. Sirgy, M. J., Gao, T., & Young, R. F. (2008). How does residents' satisfaction with community services influence quality of life (QOL) outcomes? Applied Research in Quality of Life, 3(2), 81.
  44. Sohi, K. K., Singh, P., & Bopanna, K. (2018). Ritual participation, sense of community, and social well-being: A study of seva in the Sikh community. Journal of Religion and Health, 57, 2066-2078.
  45. Statistics Korea. (2019). 2015-2019 Population census [Data set]. Retrieved May 23, 2021, from
  46. Suk, H. W. (2012). Do the elderly people vote with their feet?: An empirical test of Tiebout's mechanism. The Korea Local Administration Review, 26(2), 273-311.
  47. Taylor, S. A., & Hunter, G. (2014). An exploratory investigation into antecedents of satisfactions, brand attitude, and loyalty within the (B2B) eCRM industry. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 27, 24-42.
  48. Theodori, G. L. (2001). Examining the effects of community satisfaction and attachment on individual well-being. Rural Sociology, 66(4), 618-628.
  49. Tiebout, C. M. (1956). A pure theory of local expenditures. Journal of political economy, 64(5), 416-424.
  50. Van Ryzin, G. G. (2007). Pieces of a puzzle: Linking government performance, citizen satisfaction, and trust. Public Performance & Management Review, 30(4), 521-535.
  51. Vigoda, E., & Yuval, F. (2003). Managerial quality, administrative performance and trust in governance: Can we point to causality? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 62(3), 12-25.
  52. Yetim, N., & Yetim, U. (2014). Sense of community and individual well-being: esearch on fulfillment of needs and social capital in the Turkish community. Social Indicators Research, 115, 93-115.
  53. Yin, X., Chen, J., & Li, J. (2019). Rural innovation system: Revitalize the countryside for a sustainable development. Journal of Rural Studies.