Factors Influencing Museum Visits: An Empirical Study in Vietnam

  • NGUYEN, Lan (Faculty of Accounting and Auditing, Van Lang University)
  • Received : 2021.04.10
  • Accepted : 2021.07.04
  • Published : 2021.08.30


This paper aims to investigate factors affecting museum visits of young people in Vietnam by sending questionnaires to 2106 young people aged between 14-30 in Vietnam. With the support of SPSS version 2016 and STATA version 22, this paper illustrates that the empirical findings are appropriate with previous literature reviews. Research hypotheses such as learning purposes, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and museum architecture are significantly and positively correlated with museum visits measured through customer visiting intention, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. Furthermore, males have a stronger interest in visiting the museum but a low re-visit intention than females. People with a higher level of education and higher income are also more likely to visit the museum than those with a lower level of education and income. Finally, the research results suggest that the family class and the orientation of parents play an important role in encouraging children to increase museum visiting intention; however, children of high-class families are less likely to have a high intention, satisfaction, and loyalty toward museum visitation than children of lower-class families.


1. Introduction

 In the context of human civilization development, a museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary (Hein, 1998). Within the cultural sector, museums play an important role in the transmission of knowledge, learning, and understanding of cultural identities (Bal, 1996). In addition to a reflection of historical values, museums also play a substantial role in developing the national economy (Bal, 1996). There are many different definitions of museums, but the most common one given by ICOM (International Council Of Museums) is that “A museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment” (Were, 2017).

 According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), there are approximately 55,000 museums in the world showcasing a wide array of artifacts, arts, cultures, paintings, dramas, and much more (Were, 2017). In Vietnam, there are 134 museums including national museums, provincial museums, specialized museums, and non-public museums to date. The result of the rapid growth of museums is the increase in the number of museum visitors especially tourists, which partly confirmed the popularity and essence of museums in Vietnamese society (William, 2009).

  Museums have three main functions: research, education, and entertainment (William, 2009). Nevertheless, the most important purpose of museums is education, which creates opportunities for the general public to learn new knowledge, and to reinforce traditional history (Hein, 1998). Famous international museums such as British Museum (London, England), Louvre (Paris, France), and National Palace Museum (Taipei, China) have weekly educational programs or exhibitions promoted on their website for learning purposes. The importance of museums for students lies in the fact that it helps to enrich their learning in various fields, gain experiences in a new environment, and provide a unique setting for educators to teach students a wide range of topics. Museums in Vietnam, by contrast, tend to celebrate commemorative events or associate with schools to organize study tours for students. Therefore, the image of the museum is constantly ambiguous for Vietnamese people, especially the young generation. Furthermore, competition from other forms of entertainment, which better suit the needs and tastes of younger people, has been rising gradually. As a result, museums in Vietnam gradually lost their status, and museum visitation is considered as an activity only for tourists. Hence, the government cut down on the budget for museums. According to the statistics of GOV. UK, the number of people who visit the national museum every month is approximately 7 million, and around 12 million during exhibitions. Whilst, the number of visitors to museums in Vietnam is around 2, 000 people per month, most of whom are tourists. However, the number of visitors to museums is around 10, 000 people during tourist seasons (Were, 2017). A glance at the data reveals that the interest of Vietnamese people in museum visitation is still limited. Therefore, museums in Vietnam must understand visitors’ behaviors, especially their decision-making process.

 Over time, many studies have been conducted to find antecedents of museum visit behaviors. These authors have demonstrated that visit behaviors are primarily guided by psychological components (Kelly, 2010), motivational factors (Niemela, 2010; Williams, 2009), and learning factors (William, 2009). In particular, motivational and psychological factors are described as two key factors that influence the intention to visit a museum. Some previous studies have explained museum visits in terms of tourists’ satisfaction. A few studies explored factors such as aesthetic and architecture (Ray et al., 2014), cultural values (Rajesh, 2013; Williams, 2009), demographic (David, 1990), learning purposes (Kelly, 2009; Williams, 2009), motivational factors (Brida et al., 2013; Dragicevic et al., 2012), and service quality (Cheng & Wan, 2012). Museums are centers filled with information designed to enlighten and educate the curious mind. Especially for children, museums introduce them to unknown worlds, spark their imagination and provide them with valuable learning experiences. Hence, this study’s purpose is to conduct a broader empirical test, using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies to identify attributes influencing young people’s museum visit decisions. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that will help museum managers to create effective policies to attract young visitors. To achieve our research purpose, we examine museum visits in terms of a holistic model including visitor intention, satisfaction, and loyalty factor, which is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991).

2. Literature Review and Hypotheses

2.1. Literature Review

 Museums are institutions dedicated to preserving and interpreting the primary tangible evidence of humankind and the environment. Museums also play a very crucial role in tourism and hospitality. To achieve the purpose of the research, we apply the consumer behavior theory as the foundational theory. Service is defined as an invisible tool provided by a public or private organization, which cannot be stored, or its output cannot be measured in terms of physical concepts (Parasuraman et al., 1988). Considering the concept of service, museum visits can be seen as a type of service. A variety of studies on the tourism industry have comprehensively conducted research on the tourist decision-making process (Niemela, 2010), tourist perception of destination image (Embacher & Buttle, 1989), and tourist behavior.

 Fishbein and Azjen (1975) developed a human behavior model known as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), which aims to explain the relationship between attitudes and behaviors within human action. It is mainly used to predict how individuals will behave based on their preexisting attitudes and behavioral intentions. An individual’s decision to engage in a particular behavior is based on the outcomes the individual expects will come as a result of performing the behavior. Ajzen (1991) extended the TRA behavior model for the purpose of improving the predictive power of TRA. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a psychological theory that links beliefs to behavior. The theory maintains that three core components, namely, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual’s behavioral intentions. In turn, a tenet of TPB is that behavioral intention is the most proximal determinant of human social behavior. In the field of tourism and service industry, TPB theory has been widely applied to identify the determinants that affect human behavior (Shen et al., 2009). In short, from the TPB model and past studies on museum visits, we will apply a combination of 3 variables including visit intention, visitor satisfaction, and loyalty as critical variables to measure museum visitation of the young generation.

 Visit intention is examined in the scope of planning behavior, which is regarded as part of complex decision making and behavioral process (Nguyen, 2019). These processes involve multiple determinants or components which are interrelated. Visitor satisfaction is the key to success in any industry (Parasuraman et al., 1988; Baber, 2019). Satisfaction is the act of fulfilling a need, desire, or appetite, or the feeling gained from such fulfillment. Visitor satisfaction is determined by a combination of perceived value and quality, consumer expectations, and actual experience (Giao, 2019). A visitor’s overall satisfaction will influence the likelihood of repeat visitation, extended length of stay, increased expenditure, enhanced yield, and word-of-mouth referrals (Parasuraman et al., 1988). In the context of tourism, satisfaction is primarily called a function of pre-travel expectations and post-travel experiences. Visitors are satisfied when the experience exceeds expectations and vice versa (Reisinger & Turner, 2003). Based on previous studies, the satisfaction level is an important variable determining museum visiting behavior and attitude of visitors (Rajesh, 2013).

 Customer loyalty is one of the key areas of this research and produced significant insights into the process of exploring visitor behavior (Choi & Moon, 2006). Many past studies have shown the relationship between destination visits, visitor satisfaction, and visitor loyalty (Murphy et al., 2000; Bigne et al., 2001). They have identified a positive relationship between visitor loyalty and intention to revisit with tourist experiences and perceptions. Although previous studies have proved the relationship between tourist loyalty and general attractions, they have not demonstrated the effectiveness of the model when applied to a specific environment like a museum.

 In Vietnam, there are very few studies focusing on the factors that make visitors more interested in visiting the museum. Museums have several functions as custodians of heritage and culture, disseminators of knowledge about the heritage, and as places that attract tourists as well as local residents. Arguably all these functions require visitors to be satisfied with the visit experience if museums are to achieve their objectives. Thu and Chris (2013) surveyed 411 visitors of the Cham Museum, Danang, Vietnam, and argued that satisfaction is measured by the willingness of visitors to make recommendations to others.

 This study will solve the contradictions in previous research by summarizing previous studies and surveying in the context of Vietnamese museums. Visit intention, visitor satisfaction, and loyalty are used as dependent variables to measure museum visits. Furthermore, other independent variables namely demographic, motivation, service, learning, aesthetics and architecture, and cultural values shall be used to conduct a holistic survey for Vietnamese millennials and generation Z.

2.2. Hypotheses

 There are many reasons why people visit museums. Some want to learn about the past, while others are curious about the country they are visiting or just want to enjoy art and culture. Museums are great for meeting new people, learning how our ancestors lived, and expanding our minds. Ray et al. (2014) studied individuals’ museum visit behavior and identified various influencing factors. The study included 54 attributes to address museum visit behavior. The exploratory analyses distilled seven explanatory factors: cultural, historical, attitudinal, aesthetic, service-related, archival, and promotional factors. Hyowon et al. (2018) established a framework for millennials’ museum visiting behavior and explore the moderating effects of aesthetics and ambiance for visiting art museums. The findings showed that Korean millennial visitors pursue hedonic value rather than utilitarian value when they visit art museums. It turns out that hedonic value accelerates visitor satisfaction and promotes visitor loyalty more than the utilitarian value in the art museum setting. Both ambiance and aesthetics play stimulating roles in the art museum context and moderate the relationships among visitor-perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Utilitarian values are identified as unimportant elements for young Korean museumgoers:

H1: Aesthetics and Architecture are positively correlated with museum visits.

 Cultural values are hereditary and form the core of the culture. Cultural values are embedded in daily routines, practices, communication styles, interpersonal discourses, and public representations in which people engage unconsciously and routinely. These values give a shape to the culture and the society (Rajesh, 2013). With its cultural significance, as an integral part of cultural heritage, museums play a pivotal role in the economic development of any country by attracting both local and foreign tourists in many destinations (Rajesh, 2013; Williams, 2009). Culture is one of the most dominant factors that has not been widely considered in the past studies that examined the museum visit behavior. A museum is a national representation and historical and cultural reflection. Thus, cultural attributions are supposed to positively correlate with museum visit behavior.

H2: Cultural values have a positive correlation with museum visits.

 Andereck and Nyaupane (2011) suggested basic demographic variables such as age and gender exert significant influence on behavior patterns and attraction preferences of leisure-based tourists. David (1990) indicated that demographic determinants including social groups (salaried middle class; intermediate group; working class) and annual income act as drives for museum visitation. Factors such as age, gender, income, educational level, and family literacy make up the personality and perception of each person. These factors influence the decision to visit museums.

H3: Demographic has a different impact on museum visits.

 In contrast to classroom learning, museums are an interesting type of informal learning which is conceptualized as free-choice learning environments. Williams (2009) indicated that people, especially children come to the museum to learn and experience new things. To support the learning factor, research suggested that parents should consider taking their children to the museum (Kelly, 2009). Therefore, museum visitation offers a unique opportunity to explore new knowledge in a dynamic and educational environment, and also expose young people’s interest. Hence, there is a positive relationship between learning and museum visits.

H4: Learning has a positive impact on museum visits.

 Niemela (2010) stated that motivation for visitors to the museum includes internal factors such as personal needs and interest, relaxation, and curiosity, and external factors comprising art and craft, archeological elements, precious statues, sculptures and monuments, and place of excitement. Hence, motivation can be seen as a starting point to create a behavioral model for museum visitors. Brida et al. (2013) showed that the motivation factor is signified by the push and pull factors, which affects not only visit intention but also the attitude of museum visitors. These research findings show that motivation is supposed to be a critical variable in this research model.

H5: Motivation has a positive impact on museum visits.

 As this research has mentioned in the literature review, museum visits are a type of service. Apparently, visitors will evaluate the quality of museum service by their experience at the museum. Cheng and Wan (2012) conducted a quantitative analysis on the service quality of museums in Macao using the HISTOQUAL scale. Visitors, both tourists, and residents, generally had positive attitudes about the service quality of Macao museums. They found that tourists gave a higher service quality rating than residents. The more satisfied group usually had a higher educational level and a managerial or professional career. They further classified museums according to their themes and found the perception of service quality by visitors differed among the museum types. The study provided important information for museum managers to serve the needs of different niche markets better. To conclude, the effectiveness of service quality in appraising visitor satisfaction is undoubted (JALAL, ZEB & FAYYAZ, 2019). This is because people live in an environment that is increasingly moving towards a service-based economy, hence, transparency and superior quality will lead to better customer satisfaction and loyalty.

H6: Service quality has a positive impact on museum visits.

3. Research Methods and Materials

3.1. Empirical Models

Model 1:

INT = α + β1 × MOT + β2 × SER + β3 × PUR + β4 × ARC + β5 × CUL + β6 × D + ε

Model 2:

SAT = α + β1 × MOT + β2 × SER + β3 × PUR + β4 × ARC + β5 × CUL + β6 × D + ε

Model 1:

LOY = α + β1 × MOT + β2 × SER + β3 × PUR + β4 × ARC + β5 × CUL + β6 × D + ε

Where: α, β1, β2, β3, β4, β5, and β6 are coefficients, D is dummy variables of Demographic, ε is error.

Table 1 illustrates the meaning and the role of both dependent variables and independent variables.

Table 1: Dependent Variables and Independent Variables

3.2. Data Collection and Research Methods

3.2.1. Sampling Design

 The target population for this research is museum visitors and non-visitors aged between 14–30 years old in Vietnam. Before an actual data collection, a pilot test was done. We surveyed a group of students, specifically 10 people were selected through convenience sampling. Convenience sampling is defined as a method adopted by researchers where they collect market research data from a conveniently available pool of respondents. The purpose of the pilot study was to ensure the clarity and accuracy of the survey instrument. It aimed to identify problems in questionnaires regarding wordings, appropriateness of meanings, and interpretation.

3.2.2. Data Collection

 To collect research data, we used a questionnaire developed in Vietnamese. The questionnaire was designed with questions such as ‘personal information’, ‘museums criteria evaluation’ and the ‘experience of museum visits evaluation’. Then, we went to selected universities in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh. We asked more than 2500 respondents to participate in the survey by informing them about the purpose of the study, their valuable contribution to the study, and the confidentiality of the information. Respondents were not allowed to take the questionnaires home for the reliability and completeness of the survey.

3.2.3. Data Processing

 After collecting data from the respondents, we entered the data into Microsoft Excel and recalculated the responses based on a 5-point Likert scale. A 5-point Likert scale is a type of psychometric response scale in which responders specify their level of agreement to a statement typically in five points: (1) Strongly disagree; (2) Disagree; (3) Neither agree nor disagree; (4) Agree; (5) Strongly agree. We eliminated all incomplete answer forms and inconsistent answers. Specifically, descriptive analysis was applied in this study. A descriptive analysis is an important first step for conducting statistical analyses. It gives you an idea of the distribution of your data, helps you to detect outliers and typos, and enables you to identify associations among variables, thus making you ready to conduct further statistical analyses. Data collected and processed are analyzed using methods such as (1) Descriptive statistics analysis to describe basic quantitative characteristics of data (2) Correlation and regression analysis to measure linear correlations between variables in regression models.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Descriptive Analysis

 Table 2 shows the results of the descriptive analysis. Initially, more than 2700 questionnaires were distributed to the customers for their responses, but a total of 2112 usable responses were collected. The demographic profile shows that female respondents (1536 respondents) outnumbered male respondents (548 respondents) and other genders (28 respondents). In terms of age distribution, about 86% (1816 respondents) of the respondents were between 18 and 23 years old, becoming the most prominent range of age when compared to other age groups. 14–17 years and 24–28 years accounted for 7% (156 respondents) and 3% (84 respondents) respectively. Besides, 12–14 and over 28 are the minorities in the statistical analysis with a negligible percentage of respondents: 0% (4 respondents) and 4% (52 respondents).

Table 2: Demographic Analysis

 In general, the most striking assessment was visitors were satisfied with their experience at the museum, with 52% of the total respondents “satisfied” and 14% of the total respondents “very satisfied” Consequently, due to such a high level of satisfaction, the visitor re-visit intention accounted for the largest proportion −45% “high intention” and 11% “very high intention”. Obviously, the museum has done a good job in providing the best service and experience for visitors at a considerable price. Besides, the percentage of respondents who rated “neutral” in terms of satisfaction and revisit intention made up for 30% and 37% respectively. Respondents who rarely or never visit a museum were 80% and 7% respectively. Thus, they have little expectation or professional knowledge to assess the museum quality thoroughly. In contrary to the level of “satisfaction” and “high re-visit intention”, the frequency of visiting museums for “usually” or “always” rate is very low. Of the total participants, only 1% agreed to “usually” and 0% agreed to “always” visit a museum. However, the “dissatisfaction” level and “low re-visit intention” only accounted for 1% and 7%, respectively which proved that visitor impression and experience at the museum is appreciable. However, young people are not interested in visiting the museum frequently, which is a burden for the museum in Vietnam to implement reforms to attract more visitors (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Museum Visits

4.2. Regression Analysis

4.2.1. Cronbach’s Alpha Test

 The results of Cronbach’s Alpha test shows 6 different variables that have more than 3 determinants, which are MOT, SER, LEA, ARC, INT, and LOY. In the analysis of MOT variables, the test results show that the observed MOT variables have a total correlation coefficient of (≥0.3). Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient = 0.744 ≥ 0.6, so the variables MOT 1, MOT 2, MOT 3, MOT 4, MOT 5, and MOT 6 meet the requirements of reliability and are a very good measuring scale representing the variable MOT. For SER variables, the test results demonstrated that the observed SER variables have a total correlation coefficient of (≥0.3). Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient = 0.856 ≥ 0.8, so variables SER1, SER2, SER3, and SER4 meet the reliability requirements and are a very good measurement scale representing the variable SER.

 For LEA variables, the test results indicate that the observed LEA variables have a total correlation coefficient of (≥0.3). Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient = 0.839 ≥ 0.8, so the variables LEA1, LEA2, and LEA3 meet the reliability requirements and are a very good measurement scale representing the LEA variable. For ARC variables, the test results show that the observed ARC variables have a total correlation coefficient of (≥0.3). Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient t = 0.855 ≥ 0.8 so the variables ARC1, ARC2, ARC3, and ARC4 meet the reliability requirements and are a very good measurement scale representing the variable ARC variable. For INT variables, the test results show that the observed INT variables have a total correlation coefficient of (≥0.3). Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient = 0.710 ≥ 0.6 so the variables INT1, INT2, INT3, and INT4 meet the reliability requirements and are a very good measurement scale representing the variable INT variable. For LOY variables, the test results show that only LOY 2 and LOY3 variables have a correlation coefficient of (≥0.3). Consequently, we have to eliminate LOY1 to assure the reliability of the research.

4.2.2. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)

 Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a statistical method used to uncover the underlying structure of a relatively large set of variables. EFA is a technique within factor analysis whose overarching goal is to identify the underlying relationships between measured variables. Because the KMO coefficient = 0.916 ≥ 0.5, the analysis of the factors is consistent with the research data set. In addition, Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity has shown that the observed variables in the same factor are correlated with each other due to Sig (Bartlett’s Test) = 0.00 < 0.05.

 From the Rotated Component Matrix results in Table 6, variables SER1, SER2, SER3, SER4, MOT3 will be excluded from the model because the variables SER2 and SER4 are uploaded in both Component 1 and Component 2 with the difference in a load factor of less than 0.3. Likewise, the SER 3 and SER1 variables are uploaded in Component 1, 2, and 4 with the difference in a load factor of less than 0.3. Variable MOT3 is uploaded in Component 1 and 4, with the difference in a load factor of less than 0.3.

 After the reliable measurement of the independent variables using Cronbach’s Alpha test and EFA discovery factor analysis, the remaining variables in the models are as follows (Table 3).

Table 3: Remaning Variables

4.2.3. Correlation Analysis

 Table 4 shows the correlation analysis among the 4 remaining variables, which are the mean value of their determinants and 3 dependent variables namely INT (museum visiting intention), SAT (customer satisfaction), and LOY (customer loyalty). The correlation between LEA (learning purpose) and ARC, IMOT, and EMOT is 0.365, 0.516, and 0.44 respectively, showing that the probability of multiple-collinearity problem is low in Models 1, 2, and 3. In addition, the correlation between ARC and IMOT is low at 0.339, which is slightly lower than that of EMOT and IMOT at 0.369 but marginally higher than that of ARC and EMOT at 0.267. This evidence confirms that the probability of autocorrelation among four independent variables in the three models is relatively small.

Table 4: Pearson Correlations

OTGHEU_2021_v8n8_217_t0004.png 이미지

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

4.2.4. Regression Results

 To overcome the drawback of SPSS version 2016 in regression investigation, we use STATA 22 to analyze the correlation between four different independent variables including learning purpose (LEA), intrinsic motivation (IMOT), extrinsic motivation (EMOT), and architecture (ARC) and three dependent variables measuring museum visiting intension (INT), customers’ satisfaction (SAT), and customers’ loyalty (LOY), which are presented to museum visits of 2106 Vietnamese young people. We control 6 demographic variables comprising age, gender, majors in museum studies, education level (literacy), personal income, and family class because these factors may influence differently on museum visits. While models 1a, 2a, and 3a demonstrate the regression outcomes without considering these 6 control variables, models 1b, 2b, and 3b illustrate the relationship between independent and dependent variables controlled by 6 different demographic variables (Table 5).

Table 5: Regression Results

Standard errors in parentheses. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1.

 Overall, the results among the three models (1, 2, and 3) seem to be similar because all four independent variables have a positive correlation with three dependent variables whether we control for demographic factors or not. At the confidence level of 5%, it can be said that learning purposes, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and architecture have a significant impact on museum visits, and these variables can explain 22.3%, 5.7%, and 18.5% of the changes in museum visiting intention, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty, respectively. The highest level of economic significance is recorded for museum architecture and learning purposes, which means that museum visits are predominantly influenced by museum architecture and customers’ learning purposes. When we take into account demographic factors, we can see that younger people seem to have more museum visiting intention but less satisfaction and loyalty than elders. Additionally, the difference between females and males in museum visiting is significant where males are more interested in museum visiting but a low re-visit intention than females. People with higher levels of education, higher income, and majors in museum studies are also more likely to visit the museum than those with lower levels of education and income. Finally, the family class and the orientation of parents play an important role in encouraging children to increase museum visiting intention; however, children of high-class families generally have lower satisfaction and loyalty toward museum visits than children in families with lower status.

5. Conclusion and Recommendation

 This study was conducted to identify the relationship between the visitors’ intention, satisfaction, and loyalty with museum visitation. Based on a holistic review of literature, the authors suggest a model of museum visits, which was developed on the foundation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Finally, this study concludes that four factors affect young visitor’s decision to visit museums. These four factors are Extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Learning, Aesthetics, and Architecture. The research results emphasize the positivity of four main determinants, especially learning purpose and architecture are dominant factors for young people to visit the museum. Besides, the relationship between demographics and museum visitation was tested and indicated that males have a stronger interest in visiting the museum but a low re-visit intention than females. Besides, the result of the study also shows the impact of family social class on young people’s visit intention and loyalty. It points out that young people who are brought up in the upper class, are less likely to have a high intention, satisfaction, and loyalty toward museum visitation. In conclusion, this research has examined attributions on museum visits which are useful for museum managers to recognize visitors’ needs and interests, and serve the different visitors and tourists in a better way.

 Government plays a substantial role in the development of Vietnamese culture, especially in upgrading the quality of the museum system. Especially, in the background of integration and globalization, the honor and spread of Vietnamese cultural and historical beauties are indispensable to the nation. Although it is impossible to upgrade the Vietnamese museum system in a short term, the government should take baby steps in renovating museums. From the author’s perspective, both national and local authorities should increase the funding to upgrade the museum’s infrastructure. The modification of material structure and design will result in enhancing the aesthetics as well as attracting domestic and foreign visitors.

 Not only the government but also Vietnamese museums need to improve its attributions, focusing on positioning itself toward other types of entertainment. Initially, museums have to improve the aesthetics and architecture components such as changing the old design as well as update the infrastructure. Traditionally, museums have only focused on historical collections and showed little to no interest in understanding the interests of their visitors, especially the young generation. Therefore, transforming into aesthetic and modern beauty will accelerate young people’s impression, which positively affects their visit intention. Likewise, museums in Vietnam should concentrate on promoting themselves not only among international tourists but also domestic visitors. From the authors’ view, Vietnamese museum should advertise their most prominent characteristic, conduct more exhibitions as well as promotions in media channel, for instance, TripAdvisor, Facebook pages, Instagram, etc. These online channels will act as strategic marketing tools to make visitation more attractive to the young generation.


  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
  2. Andereck, K. L., & Nyaupane, G. P. (2010). Exploring the nature of tourism and quality of life perceptions among residents. Journal of Travel Research, 50, 248.
  3. Baber, H. (2019). E-SERVQUAL and Its Impact on the Performance of Islamic Banks in Malaysia from the Customer's Perspective. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 6(1), 169-175.
  4. Bal, M. (1996). Double exposures: The subject of cultural analysis. New York: Routledge.
  5. Bigne, J. E., Isabel, S. M., & Javier, S. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables, and after purchase behavior. Tourism Management, 22, 607-616.
  6. Brida, J. G., Marta, D., & Tsvetina, V. (2013). Visitor satisfaction at the museum: Italian versus foreign visitors. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 61(2), 167-186.
  7. Cheng, I. M., & Wan, Y. K. P. (2012). Service quality of Macao museums. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 13(1), 37-60.
  8. Choi, B. H., & Moon, Y. K. (2006). Effects of exclusive agency listing and real estate information network system on real estate broker trust and customer satisfaction. The Journal of Distribution Science, 4(2), 123-144.
  9. David, R. P. (1990). Factors influencing museum visits: an empirical evaluation of audience selection. Museum Management and Curatorship, 9(2), 149-168.
  10. Dragicevic, M., Stijepo, L., & Anamarija, P. (2012). Tourists' experiences and expectations towards museums and art galleries: Empirical research carried out in Dubrovnik. Recent Advances in Business Management and Marketing, 1(1), 225-232.
  11. Embacher, J., & Francis, B. 1989. A repertory grid analysis of Austria's image as a summer vacation destination. Journal of Travel Research, 27(3), 212-239.
  12. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  13. Giao, H. N. K. (2019). Customer Satisfaction towards ATM Services: A Case of Vietcombank Vinh Long, Vietnam. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 6(1), 141-148.
  14. Hein, G. E. (1998). Learning in the museum. London: Routledge.
  15. Hyowon, H., Jungkun, P., Tianbao, R., & Hyunjin, K. (2018). The role of ambiances and aesthetics on millennials' museum visiting behavior. Arts and the Market, 8, 152-167.
  16. Jalal, R. N. U. D., Zeb, N., & Fayyaz, U. E. (2019). The effect of personality traits on employee job satisfaction with moderating role of Islamic work ethics. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 6(2), 161-171.
  17. Kelly, L. (2009). Cultural tourism and museums. Innovation in the Art Museum Education Tradition International Symposium, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taiwan, October 17-18, 2009 (pp. 1-12).
  18. Kelly, L. (2010). Understanding museum learning from the visitor's perspective. Curator: The Museum Journal, 46(4), 362-366.
  19. Murphy, P., Mark, P. P., & Brock, S. (2000). The destination product and its impact on traveler perceptions. Tourism Management, 21, 43-52.
  20. Nguyen, H. H. (2019). The study on people's satisfaction towards public services of Viet Nam: Evidence of Tra Vinh provincial center of public administrative services. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 6(2), 183-187.
  21. Niemela, T. (2010). Motivation factors in dark tourism: Case: House of terror [Thesis, The Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Finland].
  22. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40.
  23. Rajesh, R. (2013). Impact of tourist perceptions, destination image, and tourist satisfaction on destination loyalty: A conceptual model. PASOS: Revista de Turismoy Patrimonio, 11(3), 68-78.
  24. Ray, R., Shah, A., Enayet, H., & Pramanik, S. H. (2014). Factors affecting museum visit behavior in Bangladesh: An exploratory analysis. 3rd International Conference on Entrepreneurship and Business Management (ICEBM 2014), Penang, Malaysia, November 6-7, 2014 (pp. 1-13).
  25. Reisinger, Y., & Turner, F. M. (2005). Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: Implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research, 43, 212.
  26. Shen, S., Anke, S., & Boris, B. (2009). Visitors' intention to visit world cultural heritage sites: An empirical study of Suzhou, China. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(7), 722-734.
  27. Thu, T. T., & Chris, R. (2013). Museums, exhibits and visitor satisfaction: a study of the Cham Museum, Danang, Vietnam. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 56(14), 239-263.
  28. Were, G. (2017). Representing Doi Moi: History, memory, and shifting. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 24(6), 672-686.
  29. William, P. (2009). A modern approach to the museum. Thatcham, UK: Visit Britain.