타인의 얼굴 표정이 도덕적 판단에 미치는 영향

Effects of Facial Expression of Others on Moral Judgment

  • 이원섭 (광운대학교 산업심리학과) ;
  • 김신우 (광운대학교 산업심리학과)
  • Lee, WonSeob (Department of Industrial Psychology, Kwangwoon University) ;
  • Kim, ShinWoo (Department of Industrial Psychology, Kwangwoon University)
  • 투고 : 2019.06.19
  • 심사 : 2019.06.24
  • 발행 : 2019.06.30


기존 연구들은 타인의 존재가 바람직한 행동을 유도하고 도덕적으로 엄격한 판단을 하게 한다는 것을 보여주었다. 즉, 타인의 존재 자체가 사람들을 더 도덕적인 존재로 만든다는 것이다. 반면 타인의 얼굴 표정에 따라 도덕적 판단이 어떻게 달라지는지에 대한 연구는 거의 존재하지 않는다. 본 연구에서는 타인의 얼굴표정이 드러내는 정서가 도덕적 판단에 미치는 영향을 검증하였다. 이를 위해 부도덕한 혹은 친사회적 행위를 묘사한 제시문과 함께 다양한 정서(특히, 혐오와 행복)를 표현하는 얼굴자극을 함께 제시한 뒤, 제시문에 묘사된 행동의 도덕성을 평가하도록 하였다. 실험 1에서는 타인의 얼굴표정이 도덕적 판단에는 영향을 미치지 않았으나, 제시문의 내용과 표정이 불일치할 때 도덕성 평정의 변산성이 높아지는 것을 확인하였다. 실험 1에서 효과가 나타나지 않은 잠재적 원인들을 수정하여 동일한 절차로 실험 2를 실시하였다. 그 결과 비도덕적 행동에 대해 참가자들은 행복표정보다 혐오표정에서 더 엄격한 판단을 했으나, 친사회적 행동에 대해서는 얼굴표정의 효과가 나타나지 않았다. 실험 3에서는 제시문의 행위자를 참가자 자신으로 여기도록 유도한 뒤 동일한 실험을 실시하였다. 그 결과 실험 2에서 나타난 결과들을 재검증할 수 있었으나 행위주체에 따른 차이는 발견할 수 없었다. 본 연구는 타인의 얼굴표정이 비도덕적 행위에 대한 판단에 특정적으로 영향을 미치며 친사회적 행위에 대한 판단에는 영향을 미치지 않는다는 것을 보여준다. 종합논의에서 본 실험의 결과를 논의하고 한계점을 제시하였다.

Past research showed that presence of others induces morally desirable behavior and stricter judgments. That is, presence of others makes people become a moral being. On the other hand, little research has been conducted to test what effects facial expression of others have on moral judgments. In this research, we tested the effects of emotion exposed by facial expression on moral judgments. To this end, we presented descriptions of immoral or prosocial behavior along with facial expression of various emotions (in particular, disgust and happiness), and asked participants to make moral judgments on the behavior in the descriptions. In Experiment 1, facial expression did not affect moral judgments, but variability of judgments was increased when descriptions and facial expression were incongruent. In experiment 2, we modified potential reasons of the null effect and conducted the experiment using the same procedure. Subjects in Experiment 2 made stricter judgments with disgust faces than with happy faces for immoral behavior, but the effect did not occur for prosocial behavior. In Experiment 3, we repeated the same experiment after having subjects to consider themselves as the actor in the descriptions. The results replicated the effects of facial expression in Experiment 2 but there was no effect of the actor on moral judgments. This research showed that facial expression of others specifically affects moral judgments on immoral behavior but not on prosocial behavior. In general discussion, we provided further discussion on the results and the limitations of this research.



연구 과제 주관 기관 : 광운대학교


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