Adopting Production System in Cognitive Psychology to Improve the Extraction Process of Persuasive Design Characteristics for Healthcare-related Applications

  • Zhang, Chao (College of Business, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) ;
  • Wan, Lili (College of Business, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)
  • Received : 2018.09.10
  • Accepted : 2018.09.26
  • Published : 2018.09.30


Purpose The purpose of this study focused on adopting production systems in cognitive psychology to improve the extraction process of persuasive design characteristics for healthcare-related mobile applications. Design/Methodology/Approach A research approach with four stages was developed. We developed and updated the evaluation guideline for persuasive design characteristics (PDC). We tried to summarize and analyze each of 28 PDC and prepared related production rules. Verification process for both guideline approach and production system approach were performed. Top one hundred apps from both medical category and health and Fitness category were selected and evaluated by two approaches. By comparing the results of the two approaches, we tried to explain the improvement and reliability of introducing the production system in the PDC extraction process. Findings Based on the updated guideline for healthcare-related mobile applications, a production system in cognitive psychology was developed. By comparing the PDC extraction results by two approaches, production system showed a better improvement for evaluation precision and efficiency for decision-making process. The findings of this study can be used for researchers and app developers to apply production system to analyze, evaluate, and develop better healthcare-related apps with persuasion.



  1. Anderson, J. R., and Reder, L. M., "The fan effect: New results and new theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology", General, 128, 1999, pp. 186-197.
  2. Anderson, J. R., and Matessa, M. P., "A production system theory of serial memory", Psychological Review, Vol. 104, 1997, pp. 728-748.
  3. Anderson, J. R., Bothell, D., Lebiere, C., and Matessa, M., "An integrated theory of list memory", Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 38, 1998, pp. 341-380.
  4. Busch, M., Schrammel, J., and Tscheligi, M., "Personalized Persuasive Technology - Development and Validation of Scales for Measuring Persuadability", in PERSUASIVE 2013 (Sydney, Australia, 2013), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2013, pp. 33-38.
  5. Fogg, B. J., "Persuasive Computers: Perspectives and Research Directions", in Proceedings of the CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Los Angeles, CA, USA, 1998), ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, 1998, pp. 225-232.
  6. Fogg, B. J., "Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do", San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2003.
  7. Fogg, B., and Hreha, J., "Behavior wizard: a method for matching target behaviors with solutions", In PERSUASIVE 2010 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2010), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, pp. 117-131.
  8. Harjumaa, M., Segerstahl, K., and Oinas-Kukkonen, H., "Understanding persuasive software functionality in practice: a field trial of polar FT60", in PERSUASIVE 2009 (Claremont, CA, USA, 2009); Article No. 2, 2009.
  9. Lehto, T., and Oinas-Kukkonen, H., "Explaining and predicting perceived effectiveness and use continuance intention of a behavior change support system for weight loss", Behavior & Information Technology, Vol. 34(2), 2015, pp. 176-189.
  10. Lockton, D., Harrison, D., and Stanton, N., "Design with intent: Persuasive technology in a wider context", in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Persuasive Technology (Oulu, Finland, 2008). Persuasive '08. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5033, 2008, pp. 274-278.
  11. Marks, J. T., Compbell, M. K., Ward, D. S., Ribisl, K. M., Wildemuth, B. M., and Symons, M. J., "A comparison of web and print media for physical activity promotion among adolescent girls", Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 39, 2006, pp. 96-104.
  12. Newell, A., "Unified Theories of Cognition", Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-92101-1, 1996.
  13. Oinas-Kukkonen, H. and Harjumaa, M., "Persuasive systems design: Key issues, process model, and system features", Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 24(28), 2009, pp. 485-500.
  14. Oinas-Kukkonen, H., & Harjumaa, M., "Towards deeper understanding of persuasion in software and information systems", in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Advances in Human-Computer Interaction (ACHI, 2008), 2008, pp. 200-205.
  15. Oinas-Kukkonen, H., "A foundation for the study of behavior change support systems", Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 17(6), 2013, pp. 1223-1235.
  16. Segerstahl, K. and Oinas-Kukkonen, H, "Distributed user experience in persuasive technology environments", in PERSUASIVE 2007 (Palo Alto, CA, USA, 2007), New York: Springer berlin Heidelberg, 2007, pp. 80-91.
  17. Zhang C., "Car Application's Persuasive Effectiveness: From A Behavior Change Perspective" (Doctoral dissertation), Retrieved from Korea University, 2015.
  18. Zhang C., Wan, L., and Min, D., "Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change", Proceedings of the International Conference on Internet Technologies and Society 2016, ITS 2016 Melbourne, Australia, Dec 2016b, pp. 73-82.
  19. Zhang C., Wan, L., and Min, D., "Persuasive Design Principles of Car Apps", Proceedings of Business Information Systems, 19TH International Conference in BIS 2016, Leipzig, Germany, July 2016a, pp. 397-410.