Review on Clinical Trials of Black Seed (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone

  • Tavakkoli, Alireza (Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mahdian, Vahid (Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Razavi, Bibi Marjan (Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hosseinzadeh, Hossein (Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medi cal Sciences)
  • Received : 2017.04.28
  • Accepted : 2017.08.30
  • Published : 2017.09.30


Objectives: Nigella sativa (black seed or black cumin), which belongs to the Ranunculacea family, is an annual herb with many pharmacological properties. Among its many active constituents, thymoquinone (TQ) is the most abundant constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seeds, and it is the constituent to which most properties of this herb are attributed. Methods: PubMed-Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating the therapeutic effects of N. sativa and/or TQ. In this review, we investigated the clinical uses of N. sativa and TQ in the prevention and the treatment of different diseases and morbidity conditions in humans. Results: Black seed and TQ are shown to possess multiple useful effects for the treatment of patients with several diseases, such as inflammatory and auto-immune disorders, as well as metabolic syndrome. Also, other advantages, including antimicrobial, anti-nociceptive and anti-epileptic properties, have been documented. The side effects of this herbal medicine appear not to be serious, so it can be applied in clinical trials because of its many advantages. Conclusion: Some effects of N. sativa, such as its hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and bronchodilatory effects, have been sufficiently studied and are sufficiently understood to allow for the next phase of clinical trials or drug developments. However, most of its other effects and applications require further clinical and animal studies.



Supported by : Mashhad University of Medical Science


  1. Ziaee T, Moharreri N, Hosseinzadeh H. Review of pharmacological and toxicological effects of Nigella sativa and its active constituents. J Med Plants. 2012;2(42):16-42.
  2. Darakhshan S, Bidmeshki Pour A, Hosseinzadeh Colagar A, Sisakhtnezhad S. Thymoquinone and its therapeutic potentials. Pharmacol Res. 2015;95-96:138-58.
  3. Ahmad A, Husain A, Mujeeb M, Khan SA, Najmi AK, Siddique NA, et al. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: a miracle herb. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013;3(5):337-52.
  4. Mollazadeh H, Hosseinzadeh H. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against liver injury: a review. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):958-66.
  5. Shafiq H, Ahmad A, Masud T, Kaleem M. Cardio-protective and anti-cancer therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):967-79.
  6. Butt MS, Sultan MT. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50(7):654-65.
  7. Khan MA, Chen HC, Tania M, Zhang DZ. Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(5):226-32.
  8. Banerjee S, Padhye S, Azmi A, Wang Z, Philip PA, Kucuk O, et al. Review on molecular and therapeutic potential of thymoquinone in cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(7):938-46.
  9. Abukhader MM. Thymoquinone in the clinical treatment of cancer: fact or fiction?. Pharmacogn Rev. 2013;7(14):117-20.
  10. Forouzanfar F, Bazzaz BSF, Hosseinzadeh H. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): a review on antimicrobial effects. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):929-38.
  11. Hosseinzadeh H, Fazly Bazzaz BS, Haghi MM. Antibacterial activity of total extracts and essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds in mice. Pharmacologyonline. 2007;2:429-35.
  12. Amin B, Hosseinzadeh H. Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and its active constituent, thymoquinone: an overview on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Planta Med. 2015;82(1-2):8-16.
  13. Amin B, Taheri MM, Hosseinzadeh H. Effects of intraperitoneal thymoquinone on chronic neuropathic pain in rats. Planta Med. 2014;80(15):1269-77.
  14. Ali BH, Blunden G. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother Res. 2003;17(4):299-305.
  15. Hosseinzadeh H, Eskandari M, Ziaee T. Antitussive effect of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in guinea pigs. Pharmacologyonline. 2008;2:480-4.
  16. Salem ML. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(13-14):1749-70.
  17. Hosseinzadeh H, Taiari S, Nassiri-Asl M. Effect of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa L., on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385(5):503-8.
  18. Hosseinzadeh H, Moghim FF, Mansouri S, Mansouri T. Effect of Nigella sativa seed extracts on ischemiareperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. Pharmacologyonline 2007;2:326-35.
  19. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S, Asl MN, Sadeghnia HR, Ziaee T. Effect of thymoquinone and Nigella sativa seeds oil on lipid peroxidation level during global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(9):621-7.
  20. Shabana A, El-Menyar A, Asim M, Al-Azzeh H, Al Thani H. Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa). Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2013;13(1):9-21.
  21. Razavi B, Hosseinzadeh H. A review of the effects of Nigella sativa L. and its constituent, thymoquinone, in metabolic syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2014;37(11):1031-40.
  22. Parvardeh S, Nassiri-Asl M, Mansouri SMT, Hosseinzadeh H. Study on the anticonvulsant activity of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa L. seeds, through intracerebroventricular injection. J Med Plants. 2005;4:45-52.
  23. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S, Nassiri-Asl M, Mansouri MT. Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11(4):106-10.
  24. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S. Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(1):56-64.
  25. Pourbakhsh H, Taghiabadi E, Abnous K, Hariri AT, Hosseini SM, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of Nigella sativa fixed oil on ethanol toxicity in rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):1020-31.
  26. Mehri S, Shahi M, Razavi BM, Hassani FV, Hosseinzadeh H. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamideinduced neurotoxicity in wistar rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):1007-11.
  27. Javidi S, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. A review of neuropharmacology effects of Nigella sativa and its main component, thymoquinone. Phytother Res. 2016;30(8):1219-29.
  28. Havakhah S, Sadeghnia HR, Hajzadeh MA, Roshan NM, Shafiee S, Hosseinzadeh H, et al. Effect of Nigella sativa on ischemia-reperfusion induced rat kidney damage. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):986-92.
  29. Hosseinzadeh H, Montahaei R. Protective effect of Nigella sativa L. extracts and thymoquinone, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats. Pharmacologyonline. 2007;1:176-89.
  30. Amini M, Huseini HF, Mohtashami R, Ghamarchehre MA. Hypolipidemic effects of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Med Plants. 2011;10:133-8.
  31. Huseini HF, Amini M, Mohtashami R, Ghamarchehre ME, Sadeqhi Z, Kianbakht S, et al. Blood pressure lowering effect of Nigella sativa L. seed oil in healthy vol-unteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2013;27(12):1849-53.
  32. Bilal A, Masud T, Uppal AM, Naveed AK. Effects of Nigella sativa oil on some blood parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Asian J Chem. 2009;21(7):5373-81.
  33. Datau EA, Wardhana, Surachmanto EE, Pandelaki K, Langi JA, Fias. Efficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male. Acta Med Indones. 2010;42(3):130-4.
  34. Qidwai W, Hamza HB, Qureshi R, Gilani A. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(6):639-44.
  35. Bamosa AO, Kaatabi H, Lebda FM, Elq AM, Al-Sultan A. Effect of Nigella Sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;54(4):344-54.
  36. Bilal A, Masud T, Uppal AM. BS5-5 Black seed (Nigella sativa) regulates glucose, insulin level and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;79:19-20.
  37. El-Shamy KA, Mosa MMA, El-Nabarawy SK, El-Qattan M. Effect of Nigella sativa tea in type 2-diabetic patients as regards glucose homeostasis, liver and kidney functions. J Appl Sci Res. 2011;7(12):2524-34.
  38. Dehkordi FR, Kamkhah AF. Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22(4):447-52.
  39. Ghorbanibirgani A, Khalili A, Rokhafrooz D. Comparing Nigella sativa oil and fish oil in treatment of vitiligo. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16(6):e4515.
  40. Valizadeh N, Zakeri HR, Shafiee A, Sarkheil P, Heshmat R, Larijani B. The effect of Nigella sativa extract on biochemical bone markers in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2009;10(6):571-80.
  41. Kolahdooz M, Nasri S, Modarres SZ, Kianbakht S, Huseini HF. Effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(6):901-5.
  42. Mohtashami R, Huseini HF, Heydari M, Amini M, Sadeqhi Z, Ghaznavi H, et al. Efficacy and safety of honey based formulation of Nigella sativa seed oil in functional dyspepsia: a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;175:147-52.
  43. Barakat EMF, El Wakeel LM, Hagag RS. Effects of Nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(16):2529-36.
  44. Dirjomuljono M, Kristyono I, Tjandrawinata RR, Nofiarny D. Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;46(6):295-306.
  45. Akhtar MS, Riffat S. Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children. J Pak Med Assoc. 1991;41(8):185-7.
  46. Ansari MA, Ansari NA, Junejo SA. Montelukast ver-sus Nigella sativa for management of seasonal allergic rhinitis: a single blind comparative clinical trial. Pak J Med Sci. 2010;26(2):249-54.
  47. Alsamarai AM, Abdulsatar M, Ahmed Alobaidi AH. Evaluation of topical black seed oil in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2014;13(1):75-82.
  48. Dogar MZUH, Adi H, Akhtar MS, Sheikh MA. Preliminary assessment of efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in local children. Pharmacologyonline. 2009;2:769-77.
  49. Arslan E, Sayin S, Demirbas S, Cakar M, Somak NG, Yesilkaya S, et al. A case study report of acute renal failure associated with Nigella sativa in a diabetic patient. J Integr Med. 2013;11(1):64-6.
  50. Bamosa A. Nigella sativa is a safe herbal product. J Integr Med. 2014;12(1):66.
  51. Ibraheim ZZ. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds and total oil on some blood parameters in female volunteers. Saudi Pharm J. 2002;10:54-9.
  52. Gelot P, Bara-Passot C, Gimenez-Arnau E, Beneton N, Maillard H, Celerier P. [Bullous drug eruption with Nigella sativa oil]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012;139(4):287-91. French.
  53. Al-Jenoobi FI, Al-Thukair AA, Abbas FA, Ansari MJ, Alkharfy KM, Al-Mohizea AM, et al. Effect of black seed on dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects. Drug Metab Lett. 2010;4(1):51-5.
  54. Lonardo A, Ballestri S, Marchesini G, Angulo P, Loria P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a precursor of the metabolic syndrome. Dig Liver Dis. 2015;47(3):181-90.
  55. Kim B, Feldman EL. Insulin resistance as a key link for the increased risk of cognitive impairment in the metabolic syndrome. Exp Mol Med. 2015;47:e149.
  56. Najmi A, Haque SF, Naseeruddin M, Khan RA. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome. Int J Diabetes Metab. 2008;16:85-7.
  57. Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AH. Clinical efficacy of the co-administration of Turmeric and Black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome - a double blind randomized controlled trial- TAK-MetS trial. Complement Ther Med. 2015;23(2):165-74.
  58. Latiff LA, Parhizkar S, Dollah MA, Tajuddin Syed Hassan S. Alternative supplement for enhancement of reproductive health and metabolic profile among perimenopausal women: a novel role of Nigella sativa. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014;17(12):980-5.
  59. Najmi A, Nasiruddin M, Khan RA, Haque SA. Therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa in patients of poor glycemic control. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5:224-8.
  60. Lee MJ, Wu Y, Fried SK. Adipose tissue heterogeneity: implication of depot differences in adipose tissue for obesity complications. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34(1):1-11.
  61. Namazi N, Mahdavi R, Alizadeh M, Farajnia S. Oxidative stress responses to Nigella sativa oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet in obese women: a randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2015;29(11):1722-8.
  62. Mahdavi R, Namazi N, Alizadeh M, Farajnia S. Effects of Nigella sativa oil with a low-calorie diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Food Funct. 2015;6(6):2041-8.
  63. Ni WQ, Liu XL, Zhuo ZP, Yuan XL, Song JP, Chi HS, et al. Serum lipids and associated factors of dyslipidemia in the adult population in Shenzhen. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:71.
  64. Moeen-ud-din H, Murad S, Fatima A. Placebo controlled study on comparison of effects of Nigella sativa and nicotinic acid along with low fat diet and physical exercise on LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2014;8:306-9.
  65. Fatima A, Shad MN, Asrar A, Murad S. Effects of Nigella sativa on HDL-c & body weight. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2014;8(1):122-4.
  66. Ibrahim RM, Hamdan NS, Mahmud R, Imam MU, Saini SM, Rashid SN, et al. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women. J Transl Med. 2014;12:82.
  67. Ibrahim RM, Hamdan NS, Ismail M, Saini SM, Abd Rashid SN, Abd Latiff L, et al. Protective effects of Nigella sativa on metabolic syndrome in menopausal women. Adv Pharm Bull. 2014;4(1):29-33.
  68. Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH. The mechanism by which moderate alcohol consumption influences coronary heart disease. Nutr J. 2015;14:33.
  69. Tasawar Z, Siraj Z, Ahmad N, Mushtaq H. The effects of Nigella sativa (Kalonji) on lipid profile in patients with stable coronary artery disease in Multan, Pakistan. Pak J Nut. 2011;10:162-7.
  70. Bamosa AO, Basil A, Sowayan AA, Sowayan SA. Effect of oral ingestion of Nigella sativa seeds on some blood parameters. Saudi Pharm J. 2007;2:126-9.
  71. Ahmad Alobaidi AH. Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum coadminstered with simvastatin in dyslipidemia patients: a prospective, randomized, doubleblind trial. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2014;13(1):68-74.
  72. Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi A. Clinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Med Arch. 2012;66(3):198-200.
  73. Roufogalis B, Sekhon B. No statistically significant effects of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure or body weight in adults. Focus Altern Complement Ther. 2009;14(4):292-4.
  74. Asgary S, Sahebkar A, Goli-malekabadi N. Ameliorative effects of Nigella sativa on dyslipidemia. J Endocrinol Invest. 2015;38(10):1039-46.
  75. Sahebkar A, Beccuti G, Simental-Mendia LE, Nobili V, Bo S. Nigella sativa (black seed) effects on plasma lipid concentrations in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Pharmacol Res. 2016;106:37-50.
  76. Kaatabi H, Bamosa AO, Badar A, Al-Elq A, Abou-Hozaifa B, Lebda F, et al. Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo controlled participant blinded clinical trial. PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0113486.
  77. Heshmati J, Namazi N, Memarzadeh MR, Taghizadeh M, Kolandooz F. Nigella sativa oil affects glucose metabolism and lipid concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Food Res Int. 2015;70:87-93.
  78. Najmi A, Nasiruddin M, Khan R, Haque SF. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of insulin resistance syndrome. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2008;28(1):11-4.
  79. Hadi S, Mirmiran P, Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Hedayati M, Azizi F. Effect of Nigella sativa oil extract on lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2015;16(6):411-8.
  80. Akhondian J, Parsa A, Rakhshande H. The effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seed) on intractable pediatric seizures. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(12):CR555-9.
  81. Akhondian J, Kianifar H, Raoofziaee M, Moayedpour A, Toosi MB, Khajedaluee M. The effect of thymoquinone on intractable pediatric seizures (pilot study). Epilepsy Res. 2011;93(1):39-43.
  82. Shawki M, El Wakeel LM, Shatla R, El-Saeed G, Ibrahim S, Badary O. The clinical outcome of adjuvant therapy with black seed oil on intractable paediatric seizures: a pilot study. Epileptic Disord. 2013;15(3):295-301.
  83. Bin Sayeed MS, Asaduzzaman M, Morshed H, Hossain MM, Kadir MF, Rahman MR. The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148(3):780-6.
  84. Bin Sayeed MS, Shams T, Fahim Hossain S, Rahman MR, Mostofa A, Fahim Kadir M, et al. Nigella sativa L. seeds modulate mood, anxiety and cognition in healthy adolescent males. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;152(1):156-62.
  85. Sangi S, Ahmed SP, Channa MA, Ashfaq M, Mastoi SM. A new and novel treatment of opioid dependence: Nigella sativa 500 mg. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(2):118-24.
  86. Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Mirshamsi MH, Zarch AB. Effectiveness of topical Nigella sativa seed oil in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia: a randomized, triple-blind, active, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med. 2016;82(4):285-8.
  87. Yousefi M, Barikbin B, Kamalinejad M, Abolhasani E, Ebadi A, Younespour S, et al. Comparison of therapeutic effect of topical Nigella with betamethasone and eucerin in hand eczema. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27(12):1498-504.
  88. Stern T, Bayerl C. Black seed oil ointment - a new approach for the treatment of atopic dermatitis?. Aktuelle Derm. 2002;28(3):74-9.
  89. Bashar T, Misbahuddin M, Hossain MA. A doubleblind, randomize, placebo-control trial to evaluate the effect of Nigella sativa on palmer arsenical keratosis patients. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2014;9:15-21.
  90. Abdel-Moneim A, Morsy BM, Mahmoud AM, Abo-Seif MA, Zanaty MI. Beneficial theraputic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt. Excli J. 2013;12:943-55.
  91. Onifade AA, Jewell AP, Adedeji WA. Nigella sativa concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV patient. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10(5):332-5.
  92. Onifade AA, Jewell AP, Okesina AB. Seronegative conversion of an HIV positive subject treated with Nigella sativa and honey. Afr J Infect Dis. 2015;9(2):47-50.
  93. EM Salem, Yar T, Bamosa AO, Al-Quorain A, Yasawy MI, Alsulaiman RM, et al. Comparative study of Nigella Sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(3):207-14.
  94. Fard FA, Zahrani ST, Bagheban AA, Mojab F. Therapeutic effects of Nigella Sativa Linn (Black Cumin) on Candida albicans vaginitis. Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2015;10(1):e22991.
  95. Mandavi R, Heshmati J, Namazi N. Effects of black seeds (Nigella sativa) on male infertility: a systematic review. J Herb Med. 2015;5(3):133-9.
  96. Boskabady MH, Mohsenpoor N, Takaloo L. Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(10):707-13.
  97. Boskabady MH, Javan H, Sajady M, Rakhshandeh H. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007;21(5):559-66.
  98. Ahmad J, Khan RA, Malik MA. A study of Nigella sativa oil in the management of wheeze associated lower respiratory tract illness in children. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;3(5):248-51.
  99. Boskabady MH, Farhadi J. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests on chemical war victims: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(9):1137-44.
  100. Nikakhlagh S, Rahim F, Aryani FH, Syahpoush A, Brougerdnya MG, Saki N. Herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis: the use of Nigella sativa. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32(5):402-7.
  101. Isik H, Cevikbas A, Gurer US, Kiran B, Uresin Y, Rayaman P, et al. Potential adjuvant effects of Nigella sativa seeds to improve specific immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis patients. Med Princ Pract. 2010;19(3):206-11.
  102. Oysu C, Tosun A, Yilmaz HB, Sahin-Yilmaz A, Korkmaz D, Karaaslan A. Topical Nigella sativa for nasal symptoms in elderly. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2014;41(3):269-72.
  103. Deurer A, Schleicher P, Kalus U, Pruss A, Kiesewetter H. Effect of black cumin oil on the immune status of patients with inhalation energy. Biol Med. 2002;31:75-8.
  104. Gheita TA, Kenawy SA. Effectiveness of Nigella sativa oil in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients: a placebo controlled study. Phytother Res. 2012;26(8):1246-8.
  105. Valizadeh N, Zakeri HR, Amin Asnafi G, Shafiee A, Sarkhail P, Heshmat R, et al. Impact of black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Daru. 2010;1:20-5.
  106. Osman MT, Taha BI, Al-Duboni G, Muhamed LA. Immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa oil treatment in iron deficiency anemia caused by refractory coeliac disease. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2012;3:887-95.
  107. Osman MT, Kutty MK. Immunotherapeutic application of Nigella sativa oil in management of dermatitis herpetiformis associated with refractory coeliac disease. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2013;4:1181-6.
  108. Hagag AA, AbdElaal AM, Elfaragy MS, Hassan SM, Elzamarany EA. Therapeutic value of black seed oil in methotrexate hepatotoxicity in Egyptian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2015;15(1):64-71.
  109. Qidwai W, Ashfaq T. Effect of dietary supplementation of black seed (N. Sativa L.) on lipid profile of patients suffering from diabetes. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2014;13(1):3-8.
  110. Kalus U, Pruss A, Bystron J, Jurecka M, Smekalova A, Lichius JJ, et al. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Phytother Res. 2003;17(10):1209-14.
  111. Esmail F, Farhad Rahmani N, Mehrtash M, Fatemeh Sadat M, Jalilvand M, The effects of 8-week Nigella sativa supplementation and aerobic training on lipid profile and VO2 max in sedentary overweight females. Int J Prev Med. 2014;5(2):210-6.

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of oxidative stability, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant properties of black cumin seed oil and extract pp.2193-4134, 2019,
  2. An updated literature-based review: phytochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic promises of Nigella sativa L. pp.2211-1069, 2019,