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An Analysis of Elementary Students' Attention Characteristics through Attention Test and the Eye Tracking on Real Science Classes

실제 과학수업에서 시선추적과 주의력 검사를 통한 초등학생들의 주의 특성 분석

  • Received : 2016.06.30
  • Accepted : 2016.08.25
  • Published : 2016.08.31

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to analyze elementary students' attention characteristics through attention test and eye tracking on real science classes. The SMI's ETG(eye tracker glasses) mobile eye tracker was used to analyze the attention process of elementary students'. The sampling rate of the ETG is 30Hz. The participants of attention test were elementary 155 6th-grade elementary students and the participants for the eye-tracker were six 6th-grade male students. The eye movements were analyzed using the 'BeGaze Mobile Video Analysis Package' program. The results of this research are as follows. First, the attention test results of elementary students showed high correlation between selective attention and sustained attention (.85) and low correlation between selective attention and self-regulation (.32). Second, the attention types of elementary students were divided into four; attention, inattention, easygoing and hasty. Third, elementary students' attention were divided into top-down, bottom-up, default mode network through analysis of elementary students′ eye-movements during real science classes. Also their attention shift occurred frequently due to various reasons in real class situation. There were three reasons that made elementary students fail to handle knowledge-dependent top-down attention; 1) the cognitive failure of target caused by failing to focus attention, 2) the absence of prior knowledge on target object, 3) the analogical failure of prior knowledge. Finally, elementary students' attention process were schematized based on the analysis of students' eye movements and attention test. This research is expected to be utilized as basic data for developing effective teaching strategies, teaching-learning models and instructional materials.

이 연구의 목적은 실제 과학수업에서 시선추적과 주의력 검사를 통해 초등학생들의 주의의 특성을 분석하는 것이다. 초등학생들의 주의 과정을 분석하기 위하여 SMI사의 ETG(eye tracker glasses) 이동형 시선추적기를 사용하였고, 샘플링 속도는 30Hz이다. 사전 주의력 검사의 연구대상은 초등학교 6학년 155명이었고, 시선추적의 연구 대상은 초등학교 6학년 남학생 6명이었다. 시선추적의 연구대상자는 모두 과거 안구병력이 없었으며, 안경을 쓰지 않았다. 안구운동 분석은 'BeGaze Mobile Video Analysis Package' 프로그램을 사용하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 초등학생의 주의력 검사 결과, 선택적 주의와 자기통제는 .316으로 낮은 상관을 보였고, 선택적 주의와 지속적 주의는 .85로 높은 상관을 보였다. 둘째, 선택적 주의와 자기 통제의 상관관계를 기준으로 초등학생들의 주의 유형을 주의형(attentive type), 비주의형(inattentive type), 안이형(easygoing type), 경솔형(hasty type)으로 구분하였다. 셋째, 실제 과학수업에서 초등학생들의 안구운동분석을 통해 초등학생들의 주의는 상향식 주의처리, 하향식 주의처리, 디폴트 모드 네트워크로 구분할 수 있었다. 또한 실제 수업에서 초등학생들의 주의 전환은 다양한 원인으로 인해 빈번히 발생하였다. 초등학생들이 목표 지향적이고 지식에 의존하는 하향식 주의 처리를 못하는 원인은 초점주의 실패로 인한 목표 대상 지각의 실패, 목표 대상에 대한 관련지식의 부재, 관련지식에 대한 유추의 실패 등으로 나타났다. 주의력 검사와 안구운동분석을 종합하여 초등학생의 주의 처리과정을 도식하였다. 이 연구에서 밝힌 초등학생의 주의 특성과 주의 처리과정이 효과적인 교수전략, 교수학습 모형, 교수자료를 개발하는데 기초적인 자료로 활용될 것을 기대한다.

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