The Kinematic Factors of Physical Motions During Air Pistol Shooting

  • Kim, Min-Soo (Department of Sports Science, Division of Sport Science, Kangwon National University)
  • Received : 2016.05.08
  • Accepted : 2016.06.04
  • Published : 2016.06.30


Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematic factors of motion during air pistol shooting. Method: This study aimed to investigate changes in forces during movement and determine the factors that affect changes in force during the first, middle, and last periods of shooting an air pistol. Two ground reaction force systems (force platform), SCATT (a shooting training system), and EMG (electromyogram) to measure the action potentials in the muscles of the upper body were used in this study. Four university air pistol players (age: 19.75 years, height: 175.50 cm, body mass: $69.55{\pm}11.50kg$, career length: $6.25{\pm}6years$) who are training to progress to a higher rank were enrolled. Results: In terms of the actual shooting results, the mean score in the middle section was $42.48{\pm}1.74$ points, higher than those in the first and the last periods when using SCATT. The gunpoint moved 13.48 mm more vertically than horizontally in the target trajectory. With respect to action potentials of muscles measured using EMG, the highest action potentials during the aiming-shooting segments, in order higher to lower, were seen in the trapezius (intermediate region), trapezius (superior region), deltoid (lateral), and triceps brachii (long head). The action potentials of biceps brachii and brachioradialis turned out to be high during grasping motion, which is a preparatory stage. During the final segment, muscle fatigue appeared in the deltoid (lateral), biceps brachii (long head), brachioradialis, and trapezius (intermediate region). In terms of the ground reaction force, during the first period of shooting, there was a major change in the overall direction (left-right $F_x$, forward-backward $F_y$, vertical $F_z$) of the center of the mass. Conclusion: The development and application of a training program focusing on muscle groups with higher muscle fatigue is required for players to progress to a higher rank. Furthermore, players can improve their records in the first period if they take part in a game after warming up sufficiently before shooting in order to heighten muscle action potentials, and are expected to maintain a consistent shooting motion continuously by restoring psychological stability.



Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea


  1. Ament, W., Bonga, G. J. & Hof, A. L. (1993). EMG median power frequency in an exhausting exercise. Jaurnal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 3, 214-220.
  2. Era, P., Konttinen, N., Mehto, P., Saarela, P. & Lyytinen, H. (1996). Postural stability and skilled performance-A study on top-level and naive rifle shooters. Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 29(3), 301-306.
  3. Jeon, S. T. (1988). Guide of Shooting Training. Seoul: Korean Olympic Committee.
  4. Kim, C. K. (2003). Basic Biomechanics. Seoul: Daekyung Books.
  5. Kim, I. J. (2014). A Study on the Effects of Core Muscle Training Exercises on Performance of Female Air Pistol Players. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of HanSeo University of Health Promotion.
  6. Kim, M. G. (2000). Effect of Aiming of Air Pistol on the Scoring. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Kangwon National University.
  7. Kim, S. H. (2007). The Characteristics of Morphology and Body Composition of Shooters. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Korean National University of Physical Education.
  8. Kim, Y. M. (2008). Comparative Analysis of Kinematic Factors for Air Pistol Shooting Posture. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Education Mokpo National University.
  9. Kim, Y. M. & Kim, K. S. (2009). The Kinematical Analysis between the Skilled and the Unskilled for Air Pistol Shooting Posture. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 19(3), 509-517.
  10. Lee, C. J. (2006). Effects of recovery trials of stretching on physiological fatigue variables during high-intensity weight training. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Industrial Sports Keimyung University.
  11. Lee, J. S. (1998). Biomechanical analysis of physical motions in air-gun shooting. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 8(2), 219-240.
  12. Lee, K. H. (2012). A Kinetic Analysis of Shooting Motion in Air Pistol. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Education Univerity of Incheon.
  13. Mirka, G. A. & Marras, W. S. (1993). A stochastic modeloftrunk muscle coactivation during trunk bending. Spine, 18(11), 1396-1409.
  14. Mononen, K., Konttinen, N., Viitasalo, J. & Era, P. (2007). Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 17, 180-185.
  15. Nadler, R. B. (2002). Bladder training biofeedback and pelvic floor myalgia. Urology 60(61), 2-3.
  16. Park, C. K. (1988). Shooting a Collection of Books. Seoul: Eulji Publicaiton.
  17. Roh, S. K. & Yuh, N. H. (1986). Sports Physiology. Seoul: Bogyeong Publisher.
  18. SENIAM. (2013). Electromyogram (EMG) sensor locations. Retrieved from
  19. Soog, D. W. (2010). The effect of SCATT Shooter Training Systems on the Perfomance of Air Pistol Shooters. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Korean National Sports University.
  20. Seo, H. C. (2007). Effects of Searching on Scores in Shooting Air pistols. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Kong Ju National University.
  21. Uh, C. H. (1999). The Biomechanical Analysis of Rapid Fire. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Graduate School of Kookmin University.
  22. Uh, C. H. & Lee, G. S. (2000). The biomechanical analysis of rapid fire. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 9(2), 81-101.
  23. Viitasalo, J. T., Era P., Konttinen, N., Mononen, H., Mononen, K. & Norvapalo K. (2001). Effects of 12-week shooting training and mode of feedback on shooting scores among novice shooters. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 11, 362-368.
  24. Yoon, Y. J., Kim, J. T. & Lee, J. S. (1998). A interval velocity and GRF analysis of 110 m high hurdling. The Korean Journal of Physical Education, 37(4), 456-472.

Cited by

  1. Relationship between Aiming Patterns and Scores in Archery Shooting vol.26, pp.4, 2016,