Marine Algal Assemblages on Artifical Reefs in Jeju-do Before and After Rocky Cleaning and the Growth Pattern of Ecklonia cava with Water Depth

갯닦기 전후 제주도 인공어초의 해조상 및 수심별 감태의 생장양상

  • Received : 2013.10.29
  • Accepted : 2014.01.14
  • Published : 2014.02.28


Marine algal assemblages on the artificial reefs at three stations (Haengwon, Geumneung, Pyoseon in Jeju-do) and the growth pattern of Ecklonia cava with water depth were studied before and after rocky cleaning. Nine algal species occurred at three artificial reefs before rocky cleaning in July 2012, however, 19 algal species were found at three artificial reefs after rocky cleaning in July 2013. In particular, 13 of 19 species in 2013 were replaced by different species which were not found in July 2012. Algal biomass rapidly increased in July 2013 after rocky cleaning. The nMDS plot based on the presence and absence data of macro-algal assemblages on the artificial reefs showed that the species compositions between artificial reefs were similar to each other before rocky cleaning operations in July of 2012. However, after rocky cleaning, the species composition of macro-algal assemblages in Haengwon region was similar to that in Pyoseon region while that in Geumneung region was different to those in Haengwon and Pyseon regions in July 2013. It is needed to clarify the suitable water depth for transplantation of perennial Phaeophyta E. cava. According to the data on seasonal changes in total length, total weight, blade length, blade width, blade weight of E. cava, it began to grow rapidly from April and reached to the maximum value in June, and then degeneration of the blade occurred in July and continued to early August. Although the total length of E. cava at 10m water depth was larger than those at 5 m and 15 m water depths, there was no significant difference statistically among water depths by ANOVA test. However, in the values of total weight, blade length, blade width, and blade weight, the growth patterns at 5 m water depth were larger than those at 10 m and 15 m. Thus, it is assumed that the most suitable water depth for transplantation and its maximum growth and effective release of zoospores of E. cava will be 7~10 m water depth.



  1. Aruga, Y..Toyoshima, M. and Yokohama, Y.(1990). Comparative photosynthetic studies of Ecklonia cava (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) bladelets with and without zoosporangial sori, Hydrobiologia 204/205, 473-477.
  2. Aruga, Y..Kurashima, A. and Yokohama, Y.(1997). Formation of zoosporangial sori and photosynthetic activity of Ecklonia cava Kjellman (Lanimarisles, Phaeophyta), J. Tokyo Univ. Fish. 83, 103-128
  3. Barbour M. G..Burk J. H. and Pitts W. D.(1987). Terrestrial Plant Ecology. The Benjaminn/Cumming Pub, Co., Inc., 375.
  4. Cho, S H..Choi, C. G. and Choa, J. H.(2007). Restoration of the seaweed forest and agal succession on a porous Type (Shaped Half saw teeth) artificial reef, J. Kor. Fish. Soc. 40(4), 220-223.
  5. Clark, K. R. and Gorley, R. N.(2006). PRIMER v 6, User Manual/Tutorial. 190.
  6. East Sea Fisheries Research Institutes, NFRDI.(2007). Marine forest establish on the cross-typed artificial seaweedreefs, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, 162.
  7. East Sea Fisheries Research Institutes, NFRDI.(2009). Construction of seaweed forest in Donghae-si, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute Report, 62.
  8. East Sea Fisheries Research Institutes, NFRDI.(2010). Construction of seaweed forest in Samcheok-si in 2010, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute Report, 58.
  9. Han, K. S.(2012). Algal Succession on Gaiam (Gangneung, Korea) after Transplantation of Ecklonia cava Kjellman (Phaeophyta), Gangneung-Wonju National University, Ph. D. thesis, 140.
  10. Haroun, R..Tokohama, Y. and Aruga, Y.(1989). Annual growth cycle of the brown algae Ecklonia cava in central Japan, Topies Mar. Biol. 53, 349-356.
  11. Hayashida, F.(1984). Potential production of the aquatic forest-Forming brown algal, Ecklonia cava Kjellman, calculated from individual year class, Hydrobiologia 116/117, 429-432.
  12. Hayashida, F.(1986). Synecological studies of a brown algae, Ecklonia cava kjellman, forming aquatic forest-. Structure of Ecklonia cava population, J. Fac. Mar. Sci. Technol. Tokai Univ., 22, 159-169 (in Japanese)
  13. Iwahashi, Y.(1968). Ecological studies on Eisenia and Ecklonia in the coast of lzu Peninsula-. Seasonal variation of weight of Ecklonia cava Kjellman, Bull. Shizuoka Pref. Fish. Exp. Sta. 1, 33-36 (in Japanese).
  14. Kang, J. W.(1968). Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fauna & Flora of Korea, Ministry of Education.
  15. Kang, J. W. and Koh, N. P.(1977). Seaweed cultivation, Taewha Press, Seoul. 294.
  16. Kim, Y. S. and Nam, K. W. (1997) Temperature and light responses on the growth and maturation of gametophytes of Umdaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringat in Korea, J. Korea Fish. Soc. 30(3), 505-510.
  17. Kim, D. K.(2006). A study on the Restoration of Marine Forests Using Artificial Reef in the Barren Grounds along the Coast of Jeju, Cheju National University, Ph. D. thesis, 115.
  18. Kim, Y. D..Song, H. I..Hong, J. P..Jeon, C. Y..Kim, S. K..Han, H. K,.Kim, D. S. and Bang, J. D.(2006). Growth and maturation of the brown seaweed Costaria costata transplanted for the wildstock enhancement, J. Life Sci. 16(6), 1044-1051.
  19. Kim, Y. D..Hong, J. P..Song, H. I..Jeon, C. Y..Kim, S. K..Son, Y. S..Han, H. K,.Kim, D.S..Kim, J. H..Kim, M. R..Gong, Y. G. and Kim, D. K.(2007). Growth and maturation of Laminaria japonica transplanted for sea forest construction on barren ground, J. Kor. Fish. Soc. 40(5), 323-331.
  20. Kim, Y. H.(2011). A report for the results of evaluation of seaweed succession. Chungbuk National University, 126.
  21. Koh, N. P.(1990). An ecological study of resources of marine plants in Geomundo Island. Algae, 5, 1-37.
  22. Korea Marine Environment and Ecosystem Research Institue(2012). Recycling technology development of adhesion substrares of the artificial seaweed reef by rocky cleaning, Korea Marine Environment and Ecosystem Research Institue, 361.
  23. Kurashima, A..Yokohama, Y. and Aruga, Y.(1996). Physiological characteristics of Eisenia bicyclis Setchell and Ecklonia cava Kjellman (Phaeophyta), Jpn. J. Phycol. 44, 87-94 (in Japanese).
  24. Lee, Y. P..Kim, B.(2003). Notes on marine algea from Jeju Island-. Algae 18, 101-106.
  25. Lee, Y. P.(2008). Marine Algae of Jeju, Academy Pub, Co. 477.
  26. Maegawa, M..Kida, W.(1987). Studies on production structures of Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia cava communities, Jpn. J. Phycol. 35, 34-40 (in japaneae).
  27. Maegawa, M..Kida, W.(1989a). Regeneration process of Ecklonia marine forest in the coastal area of Shima Peninsula, central Japan, Jpn. J. Phycol. 37, 194-200.
  28. Maegawa, M. Kida, W.(1989b). A demographic study of sublittoral brown alga Ecklonia cava Kjellman in coastal water of Shima Peninsula, Japan, Jpn. J. Phycol. 36, 321-327
  29. Maegawa, M. Kida, W.(1991). Distributional pattern of Ecklonia cava (Phaeophyta) marine forest in the coast of Shima Peninsula, central Japan, Jpn. J. Phycol. 39, 173-178.
  30. National Fisheries Reseatch and Development Agency.(1964). Cultivation of Undatia pinnatifida, Seaweed Technology Report, 1-8.
  31. National Fisheries Research and Development Agency.(1973). Cultivation of Laminaria japonica, Fisheries Technology Report, 1-43.
  32. Park, J, S..Seo, M. S. and Kim, J. H.(2000). Effect of Artificial Fish Reefs in the Costal Area of jeon Bug Province. Kunsan National University, Ph. D. thesis, 21.
  33. Park, J, S..Seo, M. S. and Kim, J. H.(2001). A study on the research condition and efficciency of artificial reefs of Yokdo sea region of Chungnam Province, J. Fish. Mar. Sci. Edu. 13(1), 87-98
  34. Park, J. G.(2008). Marine Algal Communities and Seaweed Beds of Barren Ground along the Eastern Coast of Korea, Kangnung National University, Ph. D. thesis, 152.
  35. Serisawa, Y..Yokohama, Y..Aruga, Y. and Tanaka, J.(2001). Photosynthesis and respiration in bladelet of Ecklonia cava Kjellman (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in two localities with different temperature conditions, Phycol. Res. 49, 1-11.
  36. Serisawa, Y..Akio, H..Matsuyama, K..Ohno, M..Tanaka, J. and Yokohama, Y.(2002a). Morpholometric study of Ecklonia cava (Laminariales, phaeophyta) sporophytes in two localities with different temperature conditions, Phycol. Res. 50, 193-199.
  37. Serisawa, Y..Yokohama, T..Aruga, Y. and Tanaka, J.(2002b). Growth of Ecklonia cava (Laminarisles, Phaeophyta) sporophytes transplanted to a locality with different temperature conditions, Phycol. Res. 50, 201-207.
  38. Tominaga, H..Serisawa, Y. and Ohno, M.(1999). Morphology, Density and biomass of Ecklonia cava Kjellman growing in Tosa Bay, Japan, Bull. Mar. Sci. Fish. Kochi Univ. 19, 63-70 (in Japanese).
  39. Tsukidate, M..Arai, S. and Narihara, J.(1991). Ecklonia cava Kjellman from Kadogawa, northern part of Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, Jpn. J. Phycol, 39, 389-391 (in Japanese).
  40. Yamauchi K.(1984). The formation of Sargassum Beds on srtificial substrara by transplantiog seedings of S, Horneri (Turner) C. Agardh and S. muticum (Yendo) fensholt, Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 50, 1115-1123.
  41. Yokohama, Y..Tanaka, J. and Chihara, M.(1987). Productivity of the Ecklonia cava community in a bay of lzu Peninsula on the Pacific coast of Japan, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 100, 129-141.

Cited by

  1. Wake Region Estimation of Artificial Reefs using Wake Volume Diagrams vol.28, pp.4, 2016,