Consonant Confusions Matrices in Adults with Dysarthria Associated with Cerebral Palsy

뇌성마비로 인한 마비말장애 성인의 자음 오류 분석

  • Received : 2012.10.27
  • Accepted : 2013.02.19
  • Published : 2013.03.31


The aim of this study was to analyze consonant articulation errors produced by 90 speakers with cerebral palsy (CP). Phonetic transcriptions were made for 37 single-word utterances containing 70 phonemes: 48 initial consonants and 22 final consonants. Errors of substitution, omission, and distortion were analyzed using a confusion matrix paradigm showing the visualization of error patterns. Results showed that substitution errors in initial and final consonants were most frequent, followed by omission and distortion. Consonant omission occurred more frequently on final consonants. In both initial and final consonants, the within-place errors were more prominent than the within-manner errors. The current results suggest that consonant confusion matrices for dysarthric speech may provide useful information for evaluating speech intelligibility and developing automatic speech recognition system of adults with CP associated dysarthria.



  1. Kim, S. J., & Shin, J. Y. (2007). Articulatory and Phonological Disorders, Seoul: Sigma Press. (김수진, 신지영 (2007). 조음음운장애. 서울: 시그마프레스.)
  2. McAuliffe, M. J., Borrie, S. A., Good, P. V., & Hughes, L. (2010). Consideration of the listener in the assessment and treatment of dysarthria. Acquiring Knowledge in Speech, Language, and Hearing, Vol. 12, No. 1, 16-19.
  3. Kent, R. D., Weismer, G., & Kent, J. F. (1989). Toward phonetic intelligibility testing in dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, Vol. 54, No. 4, 482-499.
  4. Lee, Y., Sung, J. E., Sim, H. S., Han, J. H., & Song, H. N. (2012). Analysis of articulation error patterns depending on the level of speech intelligibility in adults with dysarthria. Korean Journal of Communication Disorders, Vol. 17, No. 1, 130-142. (이영미, 성지은, 심현섭, 한지후, 송한내 (2012). 마비말장애인의 조음오류 유형에 따른 말명료도 분석, 언어청각장애연구, 제17권, 제1호, 130-142.)
  5. Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1969). Clusters of deviant speech dimensions in the dysarthrias. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, 462-496.
  6. Platt, L. J., Andrews, G., & Howie, P. M. (1980). Dysarthria of adult cerebral palsy: II. Phonemic analysis of articulatory errors. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, Vol. 23, No. 1, 41-55.
  7. Ansel, B. M., & Kent, R. D. (1992). Acoustic-phonetic contrasts and intelligibility in the dysarthria associated with mixed cerebral palsy, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 296-308.
  8. Clarke, W. M., & Hoops, H. R. (1980). Predictive measures of speech proficiency in cerebral palsied speakers. Journal of Communication Disorders, Vol. 13, No. 5, 385-394.
  9. Manochiopinig, S., Thubthong, N., & Kayasith, P. (2008). Dysarthric speech characteristics of Thai stroke patients, Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, Vol. 3, No. 6, 332-338.
  10. Whitehill, T. L., & Ciocca, V. (2000). Speech errors in Cantonese speaking adults with cerebral palsy. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, Vol. 14, No. 2, 111-130.
  11. Miller, G. A., & Nicely, P. E. (1955). An analysis of perceptual confusions among some English consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 27, No. 2, 338-352.
  12. Kim, M. J., Pea, S. Y., & Park, C. I. (2007). Assessment of phonology and articulation for children. Human Brain Research & Consulting. (김민정, 배소영, 박창일 (2007). 아동용 발음평가. 휴브알렌씨.)
  13. Choi, D. L., Kim, B. W., Lee, Y. J., Um, Y. N., & Chung, M. H. (2011). Design and creation of dysarthric speech database for development of QoLT software technology. In Proceedings of Speech Database and Assessments (Oriental COCOSDA). Hsinchu City, Taiwan.
  14. Kim, H., Martin, K., Hasegawa-Johnson, M., & Perlman, A. (2010). Frequency of consonant articulation errors in dysarthric speech, Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, Vol. 24, No. 10, 759-770.
  15. Kim, M. J., & Pae, S. Y. (2005). The percentage of consonants correct and the ages of consonantal acquisition for 'Korean-Test of Articulation for Children (K-TAC)'. Speech Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 2, 139-149. (김민정, 배소영 (2005). '아동용 조음검사'를 이용한 연령별 자음정확도와 우리말 자음의 습득연령. 음성과학, 제12권, 제2호, 139-149.)
  16. Thompson, E. C., Murdoch, B. E., & Stokes, P. D. (1995). Lip function in subjects with upper motor neuron type dysarthria following cerebrovascular accidents. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, Vol. 30, No. 4, 451-466.
  17. Theodoros, D. G., Murdoch, B. E., & Strokes, P. C. (1995). A physiological analysis of articulatory dysfunction in dysarthric speakers following severe closed-head injury. Brain Injury, Vol. 9, No. 3, 237-254.
  18. Kim, M. J., & Pae, S. Y. (2000). Phonological error patterns of Korean children with specific phonological disorders. Speech Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 2, 16-27. (김민정, 배소영 (2000). 정상 아동과 기능적 음운장애 아동의 음운 오류 비교: 자음 정확도와 발달 유형을 중심으로. 음성과학, 제7권, 제2호, 16-27.)
  19. Ohala, D. (1992). A unified theory of final consonant deletion in early child speech. In C. Gerfen & P. Pinar (Eds.), Cyote papers: Working papers in linguistics from A$\rightarrow$Z. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.
  20. Darley, F., Aronson, A., & Brown, J. (1975). Motor speech disorders, Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.
  21. Wertz, R., LaPointe, L., & Rosenbek, J. (1984). Apraxia of speech in adults: The disorder and its management. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton.
  22. Hwang, Y., Kim, S., & Chung, M. (2011). Comparison between intelligibility and speech recognition accuracy of dysarthric speech. In Proceedings of the HCI Conference. Alpensia Resort Convention Center, Pyeongchang. (황유미, 김선희, 정민화 (2011). 마비말장애의 발화 명료도와 음성 인식률 비교, HCI 학술대회 논문집. 알펜시아 리조트컨벤션센터, 평창.)
  23. Christensen, H., Cunningham, S., Fox, C., Green, P., & Hain, T. (2012). A comparative study of adaptive, automatic recognition of disordered speech. In Proceedings of Interspeech, Portland, Oregon, US.
  24. Seong, W. K., Park, J. H., & Kim, H. K. (2012). Dysarthric speech recognition error correction using weighted finite state transducers based on context-dependent pronunciation variation. Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Vol. 7383, 475-482.

Cited by

  1. Automatic Intelligibility Assessment of Dysarthric Speech Using Phonologically-Structured Sparse Linear Model vol.23, pp.4, 2015,