Establishing National Science and Technology Park in Pakistan

  • Hashmi, Amer (National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)) ;
  • Shah, Ali (National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST))
  • Published : 2013.01.31


This paper presents the concept of the National Science and Technology Park (NSTP) in Islamabad, Pakistan. Keeping in line with Karl Popper's Piecemeal Social Engineering theory, a critical-pragmatic approach is adopted in shedding light on the strategic thrusts and expected outcomes of this knowledge-driven, entrepreneurially-spirited, multi-industry project. Based on Triple-Helix perspectives, we investigate the role of the National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad in efforts aimed at developing NSTP as an intermediary hybrid organization that enhances industry-academia-government linkages, with the potential to serve as an engine for regional and national economic growth and competitiveness.



  1. Arocena, R., and Sutz, J. (2001) "Changing knowledge production and Latin American universities," Research Policy 30:1221-34. Accessed 20 December 2011.
  2. Bakarous, Y.L., Mardas, D.C., and Varsakelis, N.C. (2002) "Science park, a high tech fantasy? An analysis of the science parks of Greece," Technovation 22: 123-8. Accessed 4 September 2012.
  3. Bigliardi, B., Dormio, A.I., Nosella, A., and Petroni, G. (2006) "Assessing science park performances: directions from selected Italian case studies," Technovation 26: 489- 505. Accessed 25 July 2006. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2005.01.002.
  4. Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambrige, UK : Cambridge University Press).
  5. Chan, K.F., and Lau, T. (2005) "Assessing technology incubator programs in the science park: the good, the bad and the ugly," Technovation 25: 1215-28. Accessed 4 June 2012. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2004.03.010.
  6. Durao, D., Sarmento, M., Varela, V., and Maltez, L. (2005) "Virtual and real-estate science and technology parks: a case study of Taguspark," Technovation 25: 237-44. Accessed 3 September 2012. doi:10.1016/S0166-4972(03)00110-X.
  7. Ernst, D. (2002) "Global production networks and the changing geography of innovation systems. Implications for developing countries," Economics of Innovation and New Technology 11(6): 497-523. Accessed 24 November 2009.
  8. Etzkowitz, H. (2008) The Triple Helix University-Industry-Government Innovation in Action (London ; New York: Routledge).
  9. Ferguson, R., and Olofsson, C. (2004) "Science parks and the development of NTBFs - Location, survival and growth," Journal of Technology Transfer 29: 5-17. Accessed 5 September 2012. doi: 10.1023/
  10. Filatotchev, I., Liu, X., Lu, J., and Wright, M. (2011) "Knowledge spillovers through human mobility across national borders: Evidence from Zhongguancun Science Park in China," Research Policy 40: 453-62. Accessed 28 January 2012. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2011.01.003.
  11. Hansson, F., Husted, K., and Vestergaard. J. (2005) "Second Generation Science Parks: From Structural Holes Jockeys to Social Capital Catalysts of the Knowledge Society," Technovation 25: 1039-49. Accessed 15 January 2012. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2004.03.003.
  12. Hu, A.G. (2007) "Technology parks and regional economic growth in China," Research Policy 36: 76-87. Accessed 8 September 2012. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2006.08.003.
  13. Hu, M-C. (2011) "Evolution of Knowledge creation and diffusion: the revisit of Taiwan's Hsinchu Science Park," Scientometrics 88: 949-77. Accessed 1 September 2012. doi 10.1007/s11192-011-0427-5.
  14. Kang, B.-J. (2004) "A Study on the Establishing Development Model for Research Parks," Journal of Technology Transfer 29: 203-10. Accessed 26 January 2012. doi: 10.1023/B:JOTT.0000019538.83442.b4.
  15. Kihlgren, A. (2003) "Promotion of innovation activity in Russia through the creation of science parks: The case of St. Petersburg (1992-1998)," Technovation 23: 65-76. Accessed 4 September 2012.
  16. Koh, F.C.C., Koh, W.T.H., and Tschang, F.T. (2005) "An analytical framework for science parks and technology districts with an application to Singapore," Journal of Business Venturing 20: 217-39. Accessed 23 January 2012. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2003.12.002.
  17. Lai H-C., and Shyu, J. (2005) "A comparison of innovation capacity at science parks across the Taiwan Strait: the case of Zhangjiang High-Tech Park and Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park," Technovation 25: 805-13. Accessed 19 January 2012. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2003.11.004.
  18. Lin, C-L., and Zheng, G-H. (2009) "A value-created system of science (technology) park by using DEMATEL," Expert Systems with Applications 36(2009): 9683-97. Accessed 25 January 2012. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2008.11.040.
  19. Link, A.N., and Scott, J.T. (2006) "U.S. university research parks," Journal of Productivity Analysis 25: 43-55. Accessed 9 September. 12 doi:10.1007/s11123-006-7126-x.
  20. Lockeman, P.C. (2004) "Technology Transfer: Political Pressure, Economic Necessity, Social Phenomenon, Financial Reward or Intellectual Pleasure?" Comparative Technology Transfer and Society 2: 133 -75. doi :10.1353/ctt.2004.0018.
  21. Lofsten, H., and Lindelof, P. (2003) "Determinants for an entrepreneurial milieu: Science Parks and business policy in growing firms," Technovation 23: 51-64. Accessed 4 September 2012.
  22. Lundvall, B-A., and Borras, S. (2006) "Science, Technology and Innovation Policy," 599-631 in The Oxford Handbook of Innovation edited by Jan Faberberg, David C. Mowery and Richard R. Nelson. (Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press).
  23. Mukherjee, V., and Ramani, S. (2011) "R&D cooperation in emerging industries, asymmetric innovative capabilities and rationale for technology parks," Theory and Decision 71: 373-94. Accessed 23 January 2012. doi 10.1007/s11238-009-9184-9.
  24. Park, S-C. (2001) "Globalisation and local innovation system: The implementation of government policies to the formation of science parks in Japan," AI & Society 15: 263-79. Accessed 10 August 2012. doi:10.1007/BF01208708.
  25. Phillimore, J. (1999) "Beyond the linear view of innovation in science park evaluation: An analysis of Western Australian technology Park," Technovation 19: 673-80. Accessed 29 August 2012.
  26. Popper, K. (1947) The Open Society and its Enemies (London: George Routledge & Sons Ltd).
  27. Roudometof, V. (2005) "Transnationalism, Cosmopolitanism and Glocalization," Current Sociology 53: 113-35. Accessed 14 July 2012. doi: 10.1177/0011392105048291.
  28. Salvador, E. (2011) "Are science parks and incubators good "brand names" for spin-offs? The case study of Turin," Journal of Technology Transfer 36: 203-32. Accessed 29 January 2012. doi:10.1007/s10961-010-9152-0.
  29. Squicciarini, M. (2008) "Science Parks' tenants versus out-of- Park firms: who innovates more? A duration model," Journal of Technology Transfer 33: 45-71. Accessed 5 September 2012. doi:10.1007/s10961-007-9037-z.
  30. Tan, J. (2006) "Growth of industry clusters and innovation: Lessons from Beijing Zhongguancun Science Park," Journal of Business Venturing 21: 827-50. Accessed 24 January 2012. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2005.06.006.
  31. Thorp, H.H., and Goldstein, B. (2010) Engines of Innovation: The Entrepreneurial University of the Twenty-First Century (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press).

Cited by

  1. The model of investment promotion policy scheme in science and technology park: a case study of technopolis in Indonesia vol.6, pp.1, 2018,