A Comparison of EMG Activity for Long and Lateral Heads of Triceps Brachii Muscles According to Exercise and Forearm Positions During Triceps Strengthening Exercises

삼두근 근력 운동 시 운동 자세와 전완 자세에 따른 삼두근 장두와 외측두의 근 활성도 비교

  • Kim, Si-Hyun (Dept of Rehabilitation Therapy, The Graduate School, Yonsei University) ;
  • Lee, Won-Hwee (Dept of Rehabilitation Therapy, The Graduate School, Yonsei University) ;
  • Ha, Sung-Min (Dept of Rehabilitation Therapy, The Graduate School, Yonsei University) ;
  • Park, Kyue-Nam (Dept of Rehabilitation Therapy, The Graduate School, Yonsei University) ;
  • Kwon, Oh-Yun (Dept of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Dept. of Ergonomic Therapy, The Graduate School of Health and Environment, Yonsei University)
  • 김시현 (연세대학교 대학원 재활학과) ;
  • 이원휘 (연세대학교 대학원 재활학과) ;
  • 하성민 (연세대학교 대학원 재활학과) ;
  • 박규남 (연세대학교 대학원 재활학과) ;
  • 권오윤 (연세대학교 보건과학대학 물리치료학과, 보건환경대학원 인간공학치료학과)
  • Received : 2010.12.20
  • Accepted : 2011.01.25
  • Published : 2011.02.19


The aim of this study was to compare electromyography activity for long and lateral heads of triceps brachii muscle according to forearm positions during different triceps strengthening exercises. The muscle activities for long and lateral head of triceps brachii were measured by surface electromyography. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated for this study and performed elbow extension in three different elbow extension exercises (elbow extension in a supine position; EES, elbow extension with shoulder abduction at 90 degrees in a prone position; EESA, and elbow extension with one arm at the side of the trunk in a prone position; EESP) and forearm positions (supination, neutral, and pronation). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the effects of the exercise positions and forearm positions. The EMG activities of the long head of the triceps brachii increased significantly during EESP with forearm supination, whereas the activity of the lateral head of the triceps brachii increased significantly during EESA with the forearm in a neutral position (p<.05). The results of this study suggest that exercise positions and forearm positions should be considered for selectively strengthening the long and lateral heads of triceps brachii muscles.


  1. 정도헌, 이원휘, 오재섭. 견관절 외전각도와 회전 자세에 따른 대흉근 활성도 비교. 한국전문물리치료학회지, 2010;17(1):1-8.
  2. Buchanan TS, Rovai GP, Rymer WZ. Strategies for muscle activation during isometric torque generation at the human elbow. J Neurophysiol. 1989;62(6):1201-1212. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.1989.62.6.1201
  3. Chang YW, Su FC, Wu HW, et al. Optimum length of muscle contraction. Clin Biomech. 1999;14(8):537-542. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(99)00014-5
  4. Cram JR, Kasman GS, Holtz J. Introduction to Surface Electromyography. Maryland, Aspen Pub. 1998.
  5. Fees M, Decker T, Snyder-Mackler L, et al. Upper extremity weight-training modifications for the injured athlete. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(5):732-742. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465980260052301
  6. Fiebert IM, Spielholz NI, Applegate EB, et al. Comparison of EMG activity of medial and lateral hamstrings during isometric contractions at various cuff weight loads. Knee. 2001;8(2):145-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-0160(00)00079-X
  7. Glousman RE, Barron J, Jobe FW, et al. An electromyographic analysis of the elbow in normal and injured pitchers with medial collateral ligament insufficiency. Am J Sports Med. 1992;20:311-317. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659202000313
  8. Gordon KD, Pardo RD, Johnson JA, et al. Electromyographic activity and strength during maximum isometric pronation and supination efforts in healthy adults. J Orthop Res. 2004;22(1):208-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0736-0266(03)00115-3
  9. Guo LY, Su FC, Wu HW, et al. Mechanical energy and power flow of the upper extremity in manual wheelchair propulsion. Clin Biomech(Bristol, Avon). 2003;18(2):106-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(02)00177-8
  10. Hollinshead WH, Rosse C. Textbook of Anatomy. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Harper and Row. 1985.
  11. Hislop HJ, Montgomery J. Daniels and Worthingham's Muscle Testing. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA, W.B. Saunders Co., 1995.
  12. Jafarnia K, Gabel GT, Morrey BF. Triceps tendinitis. Oper Tech Sports Med. 2001;9(4):217-221. https://doi.org/10.1053/otsm.2001.26782
  13. Kendall F, McCreary E, Provance P, et al. Muscle Testing and Function With Posture and Pain. 5ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.
  14. Kisner C, Colby LA. Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and techniques. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA, F.A. Davis Co, 2002.
  15. Kitai TA, Sale DG. Specificity of joint angle in isometric training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1989:58(7):744-748. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00637386
  16. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess N, Fry AC, et al. Influence of resistance training volume and periodization on physiological and performance adaptations in collegiate women tennis players. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(5):626-633. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465000280050201
  17. Lehman GJ. The influence of grip width and forearm pronation/supination on upper-body myoelectric activity during the flat bench press. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(3):587-591.
  18. Louis N, Gorce P. Surface electromyography activity of upper limb muscle during wheelchair propulsion: Influence of wheelchair configuration. Clin Biomech(Bristol, Avon). 2010;25(9):879-885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.07.002
  19. Mohamed O, Perry J, Hislop H. Synergy of medial and lateral hamstrings at three positions of tibial rotation during maximum isometric knee flexion. Knee. 2003;10(3):277-781. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-0160(02)00140-0
  20. Morris M, Jobe FW, Perry J, et al. Electromyographic analysis of elbow function in tennis players. Am J Sports Med. 1989;17(2):241-247. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354658901700215
  21. Mukhopadhyay P, O'Sullivan LW, Gallwey TJ. Upper limb discomfort profile due to intermittent isometric pronation torque at different postural combinations of the shoulder-arm system. Ergonomics. 2009;52(5):584-600. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130802396438
  22. Mulroy SJ, Gronley JK, Newsam CJ, et al. Electromyographic activity of shoulder muscles during wheelchair propulsion by paraplegic persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(2):187-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(96)90166-5
  23. Nordin M., Frankel VH. Basic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.
  24. Raske A, Norlin R. Injury incidence and prevalence among elite weight and power lifters. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(2):248-256. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465020300021701
  25. Rettig AC, Wurth TR, Mieling P. Nonunion of olecranon stress fractures in adolescent baseball pitchers: A case series of 5 athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(4):653-656. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546505281802
  26. Saharmann SA, Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes. St. Louis, Mosby, 2002.
  27. Soderberg GL. Muscle mechanics and pathomechanics. Their clinical relevance. Phys Ther. 1933;63(2):216-220.
  28. Staudenmann D, Rudroff T, Enoka RM. Pronation-supination torque and associated electromyographic activity varies during a sustained elbow flexor contraction but does not influence the time to task failure. Muscle Nerve. 2009;40(2):231-239. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.21224