Concept Analysis of Relocation Stress - Focusing on Patients Transferred from Intensive Care Unit to General Ward -

전실 스트레스[relocation stress]의 개념분석 - 중환자실에서 일반 병실로 전실하는 환자를 중심으로 -

  • Published : 2008.06.30


Purpose: This study was conducted to analyze and clarify the meaning of the concept for relocation stress -focusing on patients transferred from an intensive care unit to a general ward. Methods: This study used Walker and Avant's process of concept analysis. Results: Relocation stress can be defined by these attributes as follows: 1) involuntary decision about relocation, 2) moving from a familiar and safe environment to an unfamiliar one, 3) broken relationship of safety and familiarity, 4) physiological and psychosocial change after relocation. The antecedents of relocation stress consisted of these facts: 1) preparation degrees of transfer from the intensive care unit to a general ward, 2) pertinence of the information related to the transfer process, 3) change of major caregivers, 4) change in numbers of monitoring devices, 5) change in the level of self-care. There are consequences occurring as a result of relocation stress: 1) decrease in patients' quality of life, 2) decrease in coping capacity, 3) loss of control. Conclusion: Relocation stress is a core concept in intensive nursing care. Using this concept will contribute to continuity of intensive nursing care.


  1. Ahn, K. O., Hong, J. Y., Kim, Y., & Jung, K. Y. (2006). Appropriate interhospital transfer of emergent patient. Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine, 17, 138-145
  2. Carpenito, L. J. (2000). Nursing diagnosis: Application to clinical practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott
  3. Collins Cobuild Editorial Board. (1999). Collins Cobuild English dictionary. London: Harper Collins Publishers
  4. Coyle, M. A. (2001). Transfer anxiety: preparing to leave intensive care. Intensive &Critical Care Nursing, 17, 138-143
  5. Cutler, L., & Garner, M. (1995). Reducing relocation stress after discharge from the intensive therapy unit. Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, 11, 333-335
  6. Hall-Smith, J., Ball, C., & Coakley, J. (1997). Follow-up services and the development of a clinical nurse specialist in intensive care. Intensive &Critical Care Nursing, 13, 243-248
  7. Jenkins, D. A., & Rogers, M. (1995). Transfer anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. British Journal of Nursing, 4, 1248-1252
  8. Jo, S. J. (2005). Relocation of public agencies and the local response: a case of Daegu metropolitan city. Journal of Regional Studies, 13 (3), 35-54
  9. Jones, C., & O'Donnell, C. (1994). After intensive care-what then? Intensive &Critical Care Nursing, 10(2), 89-92
  10. Kang, M. G. (2006). Administrative capital relocation, decentralization, and balanced regional development: an untold story. Korean Journal of Public Administration, 44, 29-54
  11. Kao, H. F., Travis, S. S., & Acton, G. J. (2004). Relocation to a longterm care facility: working with patients before, during, and after. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Servies, 42(3), 10-16
  12. Kim, Y. H., Koo, M. J., Kim, S. H., Kim, Y. M., Lee, N. Y., & Chang, K. O. (2007). The experiences of patients in intensive care units (ICU). Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 37, 924-931
  13. Koegh, S. (2001). Parent's experiences of the transfer of their child from PICU to the ward: A phenomenological study. Nursing in Critical Care, 6, 7-13
  14. Koh, C. K. (2007). Patients'anxiety in intensive care units its related factors. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 37, 586-593
  15. Leith, B. A. (1998). Transfer anxiety in critical care patients and their family members. Critical Care Nurse, 18(4), 24-32
  16. Lim, J. Y. (2003). A comparison of cost between home care and hospital care: According to subject's general characteristics. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 33, 246-255
  17. McKinney, A. A., & Melby, V. (2002). Relocation stress in critical care: A review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11, 149-157
  18. Meleis, A. I., Sawyer, L. M., Im, E. O., Hilfinger Messias, D. K., & Schumacher, K. (2000). Experiencing transitions: An emerging middle range theory. Advances in Nursing Science, 23, 12-28
  19. Minjungserim Editorial Board. (2006). Minjung essence korean dictionary. Paju: Minjungseorim
  20. Mitchell, M. L., Courtney, M., & Coyer, F. (2003). Understanding uncertainty and minimizing families'anxiety at the time of transfer from intensive care. Nursing &Health Sciences, 5, 207-217
  21. Nisbett, R. E. (2004). The geography of thought (I.C. Choi, Trans.) Paju: Gimm-Young Publishing
  22. Saarmann, L. (1993). Transfer out of critical care: Freedom or fear? Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 16, 78-85
  23. Schactman, M. (1987). Transfer stress in patients after myocardial infarct. Focus on Critical Care, 14(2), 34-37
  24. Schumacher, K. L., & Meleis, A. I. (1994). Transitions: A central concept in nursing. Image-the Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 26, 119- 127
  25. Sharp, S. (1996). Understanding stress in the ICU setting. British Journal of Nursing, 5, 369-373
  26. Strahan, E. H., & Brown, R. J. (2005). A qualitative study of the experiences of patients following transfer from intensive care. Intensive &Critical Care Nursing, 21, 160-171
  27. Suh, C. S. (2004). Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Seoul: The Korean Culture Globalization Headquarters
  28. Walding, M. F. (1991). Pain, anxiety and powerlessness. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16, 388-397
  29. Walker, L. O., & Avant, K. C. (2005). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall
  30. Wu C., & Coyer, F. (2007). Reconsidering the transfer of patients from the intensive care unit to the ward: A case study approach. Nursing &Health Sciences, 9, 48-53