Effects of Monensin and Fish Oil on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Rumen Microbes in Holstein Cows Fed Diets Supplemented with Soybean Oil and Sodium Bicarbonate

  • Jin, G.L. (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Choi, S.H. (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Lee, H.G. (Department of Bio-Resources and PNU-Special Animal Biotechnology Center, College of Natural Resources & Life Science, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Y.J. (Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Song, Man K. (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2008.02.12
  • Accepted : 2008.06.05
  • Published : 2008.12.01


The present study was conducted with four ruminally canulated Holstein cows to observe the effects of monensin or fish oil on diet fermentation and production of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the rumen when fed diets supplemented with soybean oil and sodium bicarbonate. Cows of the control treatment were fed a basal diet (CON) consisting of 60% commercial concentrate and 40% chopped rye grass hay. Cows of other treatments were fed the same diet as CON, but the concentrate was supplemented with 7% of soybean oil and 0.5% of sodium bicarbonate (SO-B), SO-B supplemented with monensin (30 ppm, SO-BM) or concentrate supplemented with 6.3% of soybean oil, 0.5% of sodium-bicarbonate, 30 ppm of monensin and 0.7% of fish oil (SO-BMF). Dry matter (DM) intake of the cows was significantly (p<0.011) reduced by feeding the SO-BMF diet compared to the other diets which did not differ in DM intake. Whole tract digestibility of major dietary components was significantly (p<0.004-0.027) higher for SO-BMF than the other supplement-containing diets. Dietary supplements did not clearly affect rumen pH and ammonia concentrations compared to the CON diet. Significantly reduced (p<0.05) total VFA concentration was obtained by the addition of fish oil to the diet (SO-BMF) compared to other diets. No differences, however, were obtained in major VFA proportions as well as in total VFA between the supplemented diets. The SO-BM diet increased (p<0.01-0.05) the concentrations of trans-11 $C_{18:1}$ and linoleic acid in rumen fluid. Total CLA concentration was also increased by the feeding of SO-B and SO-BM diets during early fermentation times (up to 3 h) post-feeding. Cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentration in rumen fluid was highest (p<0.05) for SO-B up to 1 h while the highest (p<0.01) value for SO-BM occurred at 3 h post-feeding. An increased trans-10, cis-12 CLA concentration was obtained from the SO-B and SO-BM diets at 1 and 3 h post feeding compared to the other diets. Supplementation of oils with monensin and sodium bicarbonate increased (p<0.05) the proportions of $C_{18:1}$ and CLA in the plasma of cows, but the effect of monensin and/or fish oil was limited to trans-10, cis-12 CLA.



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