A Study on the Medical Science of Balhae(渤海)

발해의학(渤海醫學)에 대(對)한 연구(硏究)

  • 이정록 (경희대학교 대학원 한의역사학과) ;
  • 김홍균 (한국전통의학사연구소) ;
  • 유원준 (경희대학교 사학과)
  • Published : 2006.09.30


This study was examined to reveal the medical Science of Balhae which was not well displayed until now. For this, the category of the medical science of Balhae(渤海) was decided in diachronic and synchronic perspective and the concrete contents of the medical science of Balhae(渤海) was presumed. Balhae(渤海) succeeded to the medical science of Koguryo(高句麗) and its orthodoxy. Through the interchange between Balhae(渤海) and the country as Dang(唐) and Shilla(新羅), Balhae(渤海) accepted new medical knowledge. Balhae(渤海) had a customs to eat a cake made of rice flour and artemisia paste on the Tano Festival(端午) to overcome its constitutional character. And medicines as Gon-po(昆布), Doo-shi were treated valuable. and they used Ondol(溫突). Balhae(渤海) advanced suigeneris abscess medicine(治腫醫學), and they valued much of Hyangyak(鄕藥). And they took the serious view on the scripture in the education and on the simplic in the clinic. It shows Balhae(渤海) had the unique medical tradition of our nation. The medical institution and medical educational system of Balhae(渤海) was fundamental to that of Koguryo(高句麗), and it was established in the reference of the system of Dang(唐) and Shilla(新羅). It influenced the establishment of medical system and medical education of Corea(高麗) later on. And the medical doctor of the Balhae(渤海) who was dispatched to Japan imparted the advanced medicine of Balhae(渤海) and it was fundamental to the Japanese medical development. Balhae(渤海) produced superior acupuncture on the basis of superior materials which are represented as metalwork technology and Corea-copper(高麗銅) which are handed down from the Old-Chosun(古朝鮮) and Koguryo(高句麗). And we can suppose the level of Balhae(渤海) through the fact that the acupunctual technique of Koguryo(高句麗) was spread out to the nearby country. By the tradition of acupuncture and moxibustion, the theory of Bi-bo(裨補) that cure a disease on the theory of acupuncture and moxibustion appeared in the north and south branch period(南北國時代). And we can prusure the level of acupuncture of Balhae(渤海) through this fact. Balhae(渤海) educated herbal medicine with priority given to Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyong(神農本草經) stand on the serious view on the scripture. They produced a various herbs on the basis of broad territory and suigeneris herbal medicine. It is famous herb of Balhae(渤海), that To-sa-ja, Gon-po(昆布), Doo-shi, Ginseng(人蔘), Woo-hwang(牛黃), Song-ja(松子), Hwang-myung-kyo (黃明膠), Baek-bu-ja(白附子), Sa-hyang(麝香), Honey(蜜).