Plasma Concentrations of Vitamins E and A, and Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Immune Status in Korean Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Patients

  • Published : 1998.11.01


Plasma concentrations of Vitamins E and A were measured in 15 non-insulin dependent Korean female subjects and 15 age-matched normal subjects using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. No differences were found in plasma Vitamin E concentrations between the 2 groups. Plasma Vitamin A concentrations were higher in subjects with non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus (NIDDM). The effects were evaluated of 4 weeks of daily supplementation of 400 mg Vitamin E on plasma levels of these two vitamins. In addition, the effects were observed for Vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress and immune-related compound productions in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients and control subjects. After treatment with Vitamin E, plasma Vitamin E concentrations were significantly elevated in both groups. Basal plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBABS) were identical, and a decreased level of TBARS caused by Vitamin E was observed only in the diabetic group (0.02739$\pm$0.0024 versus 0.01814$\pm$0.0008 nmols malondialdehyde equivalents/dl plasma ; p<0.05). The basal and after-treatment levels of immunoglobulins A, G, M were identical in control and diabetic groups, indicating that Vitamin E did not appear to alter gross humoral responses in this study. However, elevation of Complement 3 ($C_3$) was noticed due to Vitamin E supplementation, revealing a possible effect of vitamin E on one aspect of humoral immunity, Furthermore, an increase in prostaglandin E_2 ($PGE_2$) levels in diabetic patients was normalized by Vitamin E supplementation. This suggests indirectly that the depressed cell-mediated response due to elevated $PGE_2$ could be normalized. For the definitive antioxidant intake recommendations for prevention and treatment of adverse effects of non-insulin dependent diabetes, evidence from intervention trials like this study should be collected. The present data suggests that Vitamin E may oxen some protective effects against oxidative damage and might have beneficial effects of partial immune-stimulation.