A Study on Risk Factors for Early Major Morbidity and Mortality in Multiple-valve Operations

중복판막수술후 조기성적에 영향을 미치는 인자에 관한 연구

  • 한일용 (인제대학교 부산백병원 흉부외과학교실) ;
  • 조용길 (인제대학교 부산백병원 흉부외과학교실) ;
  • 황윤호 (인제대학교 부산백병원 흉부외과학교실) ;
  • 조광현 (인제대학교 부산백병원 흉부외과학교실)
  • Published : 1998.03.01


To define the risk factors affecting the early major morbidity and mortality after multiple- valve operations, the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative informations were retrospectively collected on 124 consecutive patients undergoing a multiple-valve operation between October 1985 and July 1996 at the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Pusan Paik Hospital. The study population consists of 53 men and 71 women whose mean age was 37.9$\pm$11.5(mean$\pm$SD) years. Using the New York Heart Association(NYHA) classification, 41 patients(33.1%) were in functional class II, 60(48.4%) in class III, and 20(16.1%) in class IV preoperatively. Seven patients(5.6%) had undergone previous cardiac operations. Atrial fibrillations were present in 76 patients(61.3%), a history of cerebral embolism in 5(4.0%), and left atrial thrombus in 13(10.5%). The overall early mortality rate and postoperative morbidity was 8.1% and 21.8% respectively. Among the 124 cases of multiple-valve operation, there were 57(46.0%) of combined mitral valve replacement(MVR) and aortic valve replacement(AVR), 48(38.7%) of combined MVR and tricuspid annuloplasty(TVA), 12(9.7%) of combined MVR, AVR and TVA, 3(2.4%) of combined MVR and aortic valvuloplasty, 2(1.6%) of combined MVR and tricuspid valve replacement, and others. The patients were classified according to the postoperative outcomes; Group A(27 cases) included the patients who had early death or major morbidity such as low cardiac output syndrome, mediastinitis, cardiac rupture, ventricular arrhythmia, sepsis, and others; Group B(97 cases) included the patients who had the good postoperative outcomes. The patients were also classified into group of early death and survivor. In comparison of group A and group B, there were significant differences in aortic cross-clamping time(ACT, group A:153.4$\pm$42.4 minutes, group B:134.0$\pm$43.7 minutes, p=0.042), total bypass time(TBT, group A:187.4$\pm$65.5 minutes, group B:158.1$\pm$50.6 minutes, p=0.038), and NYHA functional class(I:33.3%, II:9.7%, III:20%, IV:50%, p=0.004). In comparison of early death(n=10) and survivor(n=114), there were significant differences in age(early death:45.2$\pm$8.7 years, survivor:37.2$\pm$11.6 years, p=0.036), sex(female:12.7%, male:1.9%, p=0.043), ACT(early death:167.1$\pm$38.4 minutes, survivor:135.7$\pm$43.7 minutes, p=0.030), and NYHA functional class(I:0%, II:4.9%, III:1.7%, IV:35%, p=0.001). In conclusion, the early major morbidity and mortality were influenced by the preoperative clinical status and therefore the earlier surgical intervention should be recommended whenever possible. Also, improved methods of myocardial protection and operative techniques may reduce the risk in patients with multiple-valve operation.

인제대학교 부산백병원 흉부외과학교실에서는 1985년 10월부터 1996년 7월까지 약 10년간 총 124례의 중복판막수술을 받은 환자를 대상으로 성별, 나이, 술전 X-선 심흉곽비, 심도자검사상의 평균폐동맥압, 술전 심장초음파 검사상 좌심실구출률, 술전 NYHA 기능분류등급, 치환한 판막의 수, 대동맥차단시간과 총체외순환시간, 술후 중한 합병증 발생 및 조기사망 유무를 조사하고 수술후 조기성적에 영향을 미치는 인자들을 분석하였다. 환자중 남자가 53례, 여자가 71례로 성비는 1:1.4 였으며, 술전 임상증상으로 NYHA 기능분류상 등급 I이 3명(2.4%), 등급 II가 41명(33.1%), 등급 III가 60명(48.4%), 등급 IV가 20명(16.1%)이었고 심전도검사상 술전 심방세동이 76명(61.3%), 술전 뇌색전증 병력이 5례(4.0%), 이전에 심장수술을 받은 경우가 7례(5.7%)였다. 술후 조기사망률은 8.1%, 술후 중한 합병증 발생율은 21.8%였다. 판막수술은 승모판막과 대동맥판막을 동시에 치환한 례(57례), 승모판막치환과 삼첨판륜성형술을 한 례(48례), 승모판막과 삼첨판막을 동시 치환한 례(2례), 그리고 승모판막치환과 대동맥판막성형술을 한 례(3례)등이 있었다. 수술후 조기 임상경과에 따라 사망례를 포함한 중한 합병증을 동반한 군(A군, 27례)과 특별한 문제가 없었던 군(B군, 97례)으로 분류하고, 또 조기사망군(10례)과 생존군(114례)으로 분류하여 각각의 분류군간에 통계적으로 유의한 위험인자들이 있는지 분석하였다. A군에서 발생한 중한 합병증은 저심박출증, 종격동염, 심장파열, 심실부정맥, 패혈증 등이었다. A군과 B군의 비교에서는 대동맥차단시간(A군:153.4$\pm$42.4분, B군:134.0$\pm$43.7, p=0.042), 총체외순환시간(A군:187.4$\pm$65.5분, B군:158.1$\pm$50.6분, p=0.038), 그리고 NYHA 기능분류등급(I등급:33.3%, II등급:9.7%, III등급:20.0%, IV등급:50.0%, p=0.004)에서 유의한 차이가 있었다. 술후 조기사망군(10례)과 생존군(114례)의 비교에서는 연령(사망군:45.2$\pm$8.7세, 생존군:37.2$\pm$11.6세, p=0.036), 성별(여자:12.7%, 남자:1.9%, p=0.043), 대동맥차단시간(사망군:167.1$\pm$38.4분, 생존군:135.7$\pm$43.7분 p=0.030), 그리고 술전 NYHA 기능분류등급(I등급:0%, II등급:4.9%, III등급:1.7%, IV등급:35.0%, p=0.001)에서 유의한 차이가 있었다. 이상으로 볼 때 NYHA 기능분류에서 술전의 임상상태가 중할수록 조기성적에 나쁜 영향을 미치므로 환자의 증상이 악화되기 전에 조기수술이 요망되며, 개선된 수술수기나 심근보호방법등으로 대동맥차단시간과 총체외순환시간을 효율적으로 줄일수 있다면 중복판막수술후 조기성적을 향상시킬 것으로 사료된다.



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