- Volume 2 Issue 1
Islam toot a great interest in the utility sciences such as mathematics and astronomy as it needed them for the religious reasons. It needeed geometry to determine the direction toward Mecca, its holiest place: arithmetic and algebra to settle the dates of the festivals and to calculate the accounts lot the inheritance; astronomy to settle the dates of Ramadan and other festivals. Islam expanded and developed mathematics and sciences which it needed at first for the religious reasons to the benefit of all mankind. This thesis focuses upon the golden age of Islamic culture between 7th to 13th century, the age in which Islam came to possess the spirit of discovery and learning that opened the Islamic Renaissance and provided, in turn, Europeans with the setting for the Renaissance in 14th century. While Europe was still in the midst of the dark age of the feudal society based upon the agricultural economy and its mathematics was barey alive with the efforts of a few scholars in churches, the. Arabs played the important role of bridge between civilizations of the ancient and modern times. In the history of mathematics, the Arabian mathematics formed the orthodox, not collateral, school uniting into one the Indo-Arab and the Greco-Arab mathematics. The Islam scholars made a great contribution toward the development of civilization with their advanced the development of civilization with their advanced knowledge of algebra, arithmetic and trigonometry. the Islam mathematicians demonstrated the value of numerals by using arithmetic in the every day life. They replaced the cumbersome Roman numerals with the convenient Arabic numerals. They used Algebraic methods to solve the geometric problems and vice versa. They proved the correlation between these two branches of mathematics and established the foundation of analytic geometry. This thesis examines the historical background against which Islam united and developed the Indian and Greek mathematics; the reason why the Arabic numerals replaced the Roman numerals in the whole world: and the influence of the Arabic mathematics upon the development of the modern mathematics.